Tag Archives: logs

Using ProxMox as a NAS

Lately I’ve been very unhappy with latest FreeBSD causing reboots randomly during disk resilvering. I simply cannot tolerate random reboots of my fileserver. This fact combined with the migration of OpenZFS to the ZFS on Linux code base means it’s time for me to move from a FreeBSD based ZFS NAS to a Linux-based one.

Sadly there aren’t many options in this space yet. I wanted something where basic tasks were taken care of, like what FreeNAS does, but also supports ZFS. The solution I settled on was ProxMox, which is a hypervisor, but it also has ZFS support.

The biggest drawback of ProxMox vs FreeNAS is the GUI. There are some disk-related GUI options in ProxMox, but mostly it’s VM focused. Thus, I had to configure my required services via CLI.

Following are the settings I used when I configured my NAS to run ProxMox.

Repo setup

If you don’t want to pay for a proxmox license, change the PVE enterprise repository to the free version by modifying /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list to the following:

deb http://download.proxmox.com/debian/pve buster pve-no-subscription

Then run at apt update & apt upgrade.

Email alerts

Postfix configuration

Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf and tweak your mail server config as needed (relayhost). Restart postfix after editing:

systemctl restart postfix

Forward mail for root to your own email

Edit /etc/aliases and add an alias for root to forward to your desired e-mail address. Add this line:

root: YOUR_EMAIL_ADDRESS

Afterward run:

newaliases

ZFS configuration

Pool Import

Import the pool using the zpool import -f command (-f to force import despite having been active in a different system)

zpool import -f  

By default they’re imported into the main root directory (/). If you want to have them go to /mnt, use the zfs set mountpoint command:

zfs set mountpoint=/mnt/ 

Monitoring

Install and configure zfs-zed

apt install zfs-zed

Modify /etc/zfs/zed.d/zed.rc and uncomment ZED_EMAIL_ADDR, ZED_EMAIL_PROG, and ZED_EMAIL_OPTS. Edit them to suit your needs (default values work fine, they just need to be uncommented.) Optionally uncomment ZED_NOTIFY_VERBOSE and change to 1 if you want more verbose notices like what FreeNAS does (scrub notifications, for example.)

After modifying /etc/zfs/zed.d/zed.rc, restart zed:

systemctl restart zfs-zed

Scrubbing

By default ProxMox scrubs each of your datasets on the second Sunday of every month. This cron job is located in /etc/cron.d/zfsutils-linux. Modify to your liking.

Snapshot & Replication

There are many different snapshot & replication scripts out there. I landed on Sanoid. Thanks to SvennD for helping me grasp how to get it working.

Install sanoid :

#Install necessary packages
apt install debhelper libcapture-tiny-perl libconfig-inifiles-perl pv lzop mbuffer git
# Clone repo, build deb, install
git clone https://github.com/jimsalterjrs/sanoid.git cd sanoid
ln -s packages/debian . 
dpkg-buildpackage -uc -us 
apt install ../sanoid_*_all.deb 

Snapshots

Edit /etc/sanoid/sanoid.conf with a backup and retention schedule for each of your datasets. Example taken from sanoid documentation:

[data/home]
	use_template = production
[data/images]
	use_template = production
	recursive = yes
	process_children_only = yes
[data/images/win7]
	hourly = 4

#############################
# templates below this line #
#############################

[template_production]
        frequently = 0
        hourly = 36
        daily = 30
        monthly = 3
        yearly = 0
        autosnap = yes
        autoprune = yes

Once sanoid.conf is to your liking, create a cron job to launch sanoid every hour (sanoid determines whether any action is needed when executed.)

crontab -e
#Add this line, save and exit
0 * * * * /usr/sbin/sanoid --cron

Replication

syncoid (part of sanoid) easily replicates snapshots. The syntax is pretty straightforward:

syncoid <source> <destination> -r 
#-r means recursive and is optional

For remote locations specify a username@ before the ip/hostname, then a colon and the dataset name, for example:

syncoid root@10.0.0.1:sourceDataset localDataset -r

You can even have a remote source go to a different remote destination, which is pretty neat.

Other syncoid options of interest:

--debug  #for seeing everything happening, useful for logging
--exclude #Regular expression to exclude certain datasets
--src-bwlimit #Set an upload limit so you don't saturate your bandwidth
--quiet #don't output anything unless it's an error

Automate synchronization by placing the same syncoid command into a cronjob:

0 */4 * * * /usr/sbin/syncoid --exclude=bigdataset1 --source-bwlimit=1M --recursive pool/data root@192.168.1.100:pool/data
#if you don't want status emails when the cron job runs, add --quiet

NFS

Install the nfs-kernel-server package and specify your NFS exports in /etc/exports.

apt install nfs-kernel-server portmap

Example /etc/exports :

/mnt/example/DIR1 192.168.0.0/16(rw,sync,all_squash,anonuid=0,anongid=0)

Restart nfs-server after modifying your exports:

systemctl restart nfs-server

Samba

Install samba, configure /etc/samba/smb.conf, and add users.

apt install samba
systemctl enable smbd

/etc/samba/smb.conf syntax is fairly straightforward. See the samba documentation for more information. Example share configuration:

[exampleshare]
comment = Example share
path = /mnt/example
valid users = user1 user2
writable = yes

Add users to the system itself with the adduser command:

adduser user1

Add those same users to samba with the smbpasswd -a command. Example:

smbpasswd -a user1

Restart samba after making changes:

systemctl restart smbd

SMART monitoring

Taken from https://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Disk_Health_Monitoring:

By default, smartmontools daemon smartd is active and enabled, and scans the disks under /dev/sdX and /dev/hdX every 30 minutes for errors and warnings, and sends an e-mail to root if it detects a problem. 

Edit the file /etc/smartd.conf to suit your needs. You can specify/exclude devices, smart attributes, etc there. See here for more information. Restart the smartd service after modifying.

UPS monitoring

apc-upsd was easiest for me to configure, so I went with it. Thanks to this blog for giving me the information to get started.

First, install apcupsd:

apt install apcupsd apcupsd-doc

As soon as it was installed my console kept getting spammed about IRQ issues. To stop these errors I stopped the apcupsd daemon:

 systemctl stop apcupsd

Now modify /etc/apcupsd/apcupssd.conf to suit your needs. The section I added for my CyberPower OR2200LCDRT2U was simply:

UPSTYPE usb
DEVICE

Then modify /etc/default/apcupsd to specify it’s configured:

#/etc/default/apcupsd
ISCONFIGURED=yes

After configuring, you can restart the apcupsd service

systemctl start apcupsd

To check the status of your UPS, you can run the apcaccess status command:

/sbin/apcaccess status

Log monitoring

Install Logwatch to monitor system events. Here is a good primer on all of Logwatch’s options.

apt install logwatch

Modify /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/logwatch.conf to suit your needs. By default it runs daily (defined in /etc/cron.daily/00logwatch). I added the following lines for my config to filter out unwanted information:

Service = "-zz-disk_space"
Service = "-postfix"
Service = "vsmartd"
Service = "-zz-lm_sensors"

Manually run logwatch to get a preview of what you’ll see:

logwatch --range today --mailto 

Troubleshooting

ZFS-ZED not sending email

If ZED isn’t sending emails it’s likely due to an error in the config. For some reason default values still need to be uncommented for zed to work, even if left unaltered. Thanks to this post for the info.

Samba share access denied

If you get access denied when trying to write to a SMB share, double check the file permissions on the server level. Execute chmod / chown as appropriate. Example:

chown user1 -R /mnt/example/user1

Find top 10 requests returning 404 errors

I had a website where I was curious what the top 10 URLs that were returning 404s were along with how many hits those URLs got. This was after a huge site redesign so I was curious what old links were still trying to be accessed.

Getting a report on this can be accomplished with nothing more than the Linux command line and the log file you’re interested in. It involves combining grep, sed, awk, sort, uniq, and head commands. I enjoyed how well these tools work together so I thought I’d share. Thanks to this site for giving me the inspiration to do this.

This is the command I used to get the information I wanted:

grep '404' _log_file_ | sed 's/, /,/g' | awk {'print $7'} | sort | uniq -c | sort -n -r | head -10

Here is a rundown of each command and why it was used:

  • grep ‘404’ _log_file_ (replace with filename of your apache, tomcat, or varnish access log.) grep reads a file and returns all instances of what you want, in this case I’m looking for the number 404 (page not found HTTP error)
  • sed ‘s/, /,/g’ Sed will edit a stream of text in any way that you specify. The command I gave it (s/, /,/g) tells sed to look for instances of commas followed by spaces and replace them with just commas (eliminating the space after any comma it sees.) This was necessary in my case because sometimes the source IP address field has multiple IP addresses and it messed up the results. This may be optional if your server isn’t sitting behind any type of reverse proxy.
  • awk {‘print $7’} Awk has a lot of similar functions to sed – it allows you to do all sorts of things to text. In this case we’re telling awk to only display the 7th column of information (the URL requested in apache and varnish logs is the 7th column)
  • sort This command (absent of arguments) sorts our results alphabetically, which is necessary for the next command to work properly.
  • uniq -c This command eliminates any duplicates in the results. The -c argument adds a number indicating how many times that unique string was found.
  • sort -n -r Sorts the results in reverse alphabetical order. The -n argument sorts things numerically so that 2 follows 1 instead of 10. -r Indicates to reverse the order so the highest number is at the top of the results instead of the default which is to put the lowest number first.
  • head -10 outputs the top 10 results. This command is optional if you want to see all the results instead of the top 10. A similar command is tail – if you want to see the last results instead.

This was my output – exactly what I was looking for. Perfect.

2186 http://<sitename>/source/quicken/index.ini
2171 http://<sitename>/img/_sig.png
1947 http://<sitename>/img/email/email1.aspx
1133 http://<sitename>/source/quicken/index.ini
830 http://<sitename>/img/_sig1.png
709 https://<sitename>/img/email/email1.aspx
370 http://<sitename>/apple-touch-icon.png
204 http://<sitename>/apple-touch-icon-precomposed.png
193 http://<sitename>/About-/Plan.aspx
191 http://<sitename>/Contact-Us.aspx

Extract multiple Active Directory fields in Splunk

I had posted here about how to extract account names with a specific modifier (exclude account names ending in a dollar sign.) That worked for one specific instance, but I found I needed something better. Active Directory logs have multiples of the same value (Account_Name, Group_Name, etc.) that all depend on context, namely the value of the line two lines above it.

For example,

Message=A member was added to a security-enabled universal group.

Subject:
 Security ID: <Random long SID>
 Account Name: Administrator
 Account Domain: ExampleDomain
 Logon ID: <random hex value>

Member:
 Security ID: <Another random long SID>
 Account Name: CN=George Clooney,OU=ExampleDomain,OU=Hollywood,OU=California,DC=USA,DC=NA,DC=Terra

Group:
 Security ID: <Yet another long SID>
 Account Name: Old Actors
 Account Domain: ExampleDomain

You can see that there are three different Security ID fields, three different Account Name fields, and two different Account Domain fields. The key is the context: Subject account name, member account name, or group account name.

I wrestled for some time to find a regex expression for Splunk that would continue matching things after a line has ended. After much searching I came across this post which explained the need for a regex modifier to do what I wanted.

In my case I needed to use the (?s) modifier to include newline characters in my extraction. My new and improved AD regex extraction is as follows:

(?s)(Group:.+Account Name:\s+)(?P<real_group_name>[^\n]+)
  • (?s)  Regex modifier indicating to include new lines
  • Group:  Section I am interested in. You can replace this with Member: if you’re interested in member account names instead
  • .+ match one or more of any character (including new line as indicated by modifier above)
  • Account Name:\s+ This is in conjuction with the previous two items to create a match that includes the section name and anything after that until the spaces after Account Name
  • [^\n]+ Match one or more characters that is not a new line (since you might have an account name with spaces.)

Finally! This is the regex I’ve been looking for.

 

Extract Active Directory Account Names in Splunk

I don’t really understand Microsoft’s rationale when it comes to log verbosity. I suppose too much information is better than not enough information, but that comes at the cost of making it difficult if you have to try and actually read the information.

I’ve been trying to extract usernames from Active Directory controller logs and it turned out to be quite a pain. Why do the logs have more than one field with the same name? It confuses Splunk and seems to fly in the face of common sense and decency.. I will stop ranting now.

In my specific case, AD lockout logs have two Account Name fields, one for the controller and one for the user being locked out. I am interested only in the username and not the AD controller account name.  How do you tell Splunk to only include the second instance of Account Name?

The answer is to create a field extraction using negative lookahead (Thanks to this article which gave me the guidance I needed.) I had to tweak the regex to look for and exclude any matches ending in a dollar sign, as opposed to excluding dashes in the article’s example. My fine tuned regex statement is below:

Account Name:\s+(?!.+\$)(?P<FIELDNAME>\S+)

It looks for Account Name: followed by one or more spaces (there is excess spacing in the logs for some reason.) The real magic happens in the next bit – (?!.+\$)

  • Parenthesis group the expression together
  • ?! means negative lookahead – don’t include anything you find that matches the following regex
  • .+ – one or more characters
  • \$ – stop matching when you encounter a dollar sign

The second regex string is simply \S+ (one or more non-whitespace characters.)

Note this doesn’t satisfy all AD logs, just the ones I’m interested in (account lockouts – they all have a first Account Name ending in a dollar sign.)

The result of all this jargon and gnashing of teeth: clean Splunk logs revealing only what I want without excess information. Neat.


 

Update: I found an even better way to do this. The key is to use the regex modifier (?s) to include new lines. The better query is now this:

(?s)(<section name of the field you're interested in>:.+Account Name:\s+)(?P<real_group_name>[^\n]+)

A detailed explanation is located here.