Tag Archives: SMART

Using ProxMox as a NAS

Lately I’ve been very unhappy with latest FreeBSD causing reboots randomly during disk resilvering. I simply cannot tolerate random reboots of my fileserver. This fact combined with the migration of OpenZFS to the ZFS on Linux code base means it’s time for me to move from a FreeBSD based ZFS NAS to a Linux-based one.

Sadly there aren’t many options in this space yet. I wanted something where basic tasks were taken care of, like what FreeNAS does, but also supports ZFS. The solution I settled on was ProxMox, which is a hypervisor, but it also has ZFS support.

The biggest drawback of ProxMox vs FreeNAS is the GUI. There are some disk-related GUI options in ProxMox, but mostly it’s VM focused. Thus, I had to configure my required services via CLI.

Following are the settings I used when I configured my NAS to run ProxMox.

Repo setup

If you don’t want to pay for a proxmox license, change the PVE enterprise repository to the free version by modifying /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list to the following:

deb http://download.proxmox.com/debian/pve buster pve-no-subscription

Then run at apt update & apt upgrade.

Email alerts

Postfix configuration

Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf and tweak your mail server config as needed (relayhost). Restart postfix after editing:

systemctl restart postfix

Forward mail for root to your own email

Edit /etc/aliases and add an alias for root to forward to your desired e-mail address. Add this line:

root: YOUR_EMAIL_ADDRESS

Afterward run:

newaliases

ZFS configuration

Pool Import

Import the pool using the zpool import -f command (-f to force import despite having been active in a different system)

zpool import -f  

By default they’re imported into the main root directory (/). If you want to have them go to /mnt, use the zfs set mountpoint command:

zfs set mountpoint=/mnt/ 

Monitoring

Install and configure zfs-zed

apt install zfs-zed

Modify /etc/zfs/zed.d/zed.rc and uncomment ZED_EMAIL_ADDR, ZED_EMAIL_PROG, and ZED_EMAIL_OPTS. Edit them to suit your needs (default values work fine, they just need to be uncommented.) Optionally uncomment ZED_NOTIFY_VERBOSE and change to 1 if you want more verbose notices like what FreeNAS does (scrub notifications, for example.)

After modifying /etc/zfs/zed.d/zed.rc, restart zed:

systemctl restart zfs-zed

Scrubbing

By default ProxMox scrubs each of your datasets on the second Sunday of every month. This cron job is located in /etc/cron.d/zfsutils-linux. Modify to your liking.

Snapshot & Replication

There are many different snapshot & replication scripts out there. I landed on Sanoid. Thanks to SvennD for helping me grasp how to get it working.

Install sanoid :

#Install necessary packages
apt install debhelper libcapture-tiny-perl libconfig-inifiles-perl pv lzop mbuffer git
# Clone repo, build deb, install
git clone https://github.com/jimsalterjrs/sanoid.git cd sanoid
ln -s packages/debian . 
dpkg-buildpackage -uc -us 
apt install ../sanoid_*_all.deb 

Snapshots

Edit /etc/sanoid/sanoid.conf with a backup and retention schedule for each of your datasets. Example taken from sanoid documentation:

[data/home]
	use_template = production
[data/images]
	use_template = production
	recursive = yes
	process_children_only = yes
[data/images/win7]
	hourly = 4

#############################
# templates below this line #
#############################

[template_production]
        frequently = 0
        hourly = 36
        daily = 30
        monthly = 3
        yearly = 0
        autosnap = yes
        autoprune = yes

Once sanoid.conf is to your liking, create a cron job to launch sanoid every hour (sanoid determines whether any action is needed when executed.)

crontab -e
#Add this line, save and exit
0 * * * * /usr/sbin/sanoid --cron

Replication

syncoid (part of sanoid) easily replicates snapshots. The syntax is pretty straightforward:

syncoid <source> <destination> -r 
#-r means recursive and is optional

For remote locations specify a username@ before the ip/hostname, then a colon and the dataset name, for example:

syncoid root@10.0.0.1:sourceDataset localDataset -r

You can even have a remote source go to a different remote destination, which is pretty neat.

Other syncoid options of interest:

--debug  #for seeing everything happening, useful for logging
--exclude #Regular expression to exclude certain datasets
--src-bwlimit #Set an upload limit so you don't saturate your bandwidth
--quiet #don't output anything unless it's an error

Automate synchronization by placing the same syncoid command into a cronjob:

0 */4 * * * /usr/sbin/syncoid --exclude=bigdataset1 --source-bwlimit=1M --recursive pool/data root@192.168.1.100:pool/data
#if you don't want status emails when the cron job runs, add --quiet

NFS

Install the nfs-kernel-server package and specify your NFS exports in /etc/exports.

apt install nfs-kernel-server portmap

Example /etc/exports :

/mnt/example/DIR1 192.168.0.0/16(rw,sync,all_squash,anonuid=0,anongid=0)

Restart nfs-server after modifying your exports:

systemctl restart nfs-server

Samba

Install samba, configure /etc/samba/smb.conf, and add users.

apt install samba
systemctl enable smbd

/etc/samba/smb.conf syntax is fairly straightforward. See the samba documentation for more information. Example share configuration:

[exampleshare]
comment = Example share
path = /mnt/example
valid users = user1 user2
writable = yes

Add users to the system itself with the adduser command:

adduser user1

Add those same users to samba with the smbpasswd -a command. Example:

smbpasswd -a user1

Restart samba after making changes:

systemctl restart smbd

SMART monitoring

Taken from https://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Disk_Health_Monitoring:

By default, smartmontools daemon smartd is active and enabled, and scans the disks under /dev/sdX and /dev/hdX every 30 minutes for errors and warnings, and sends an e-mail to root if it detects a problem. 

Edit the file /etc/smartd.conf to suit your needs. You can specify/exclude devices, smart attributes, etc there. See here for more information. Restart the smartd service after modifying.

UPS monitoring

apc-upsd was easiest for me to configure, so I went with it. Thanks to this blog for giving me the information to get started.

First, install apcupsd:

apt install apcupsd apcupsd-doc

As soon as it was installed my console kept getting spammed about IRQ issues. To stop these errors I stopped the apcupsd daemon:

 systemctl stop apcupsd

Now modify /etc/apcupsd/apcupssd.conf to suit your needs. The section I added for my CyberPower OR2200LCDRT2U was simply:

UPSTYPE usb
DEVICE

Then modify /etc/default/apcupsd to specify it’s configured:

#/etc/default/apcupsd
ISCONFIGURED=yes

After configuring, you can restart the apcupsd service

systemctl start apcupsd

To check the status of your UPS, you can run the apcaccess status command:

/sbin/apcaccess status

Log monitoring

Install Logwatch to monitor system events. Here is a good primer on all of Logwatch’s options.

apt install logwatch

Modify /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/logwatch.conf to suit your needs. By default it runs daily (defined in /etc/cron.daily/00logwatch). I added the following lines for my config to filter out unwanted information:

Service = "-zz-disk_space"
Service = "-postfix"
Service = "vsmartd"
Service = "-zz-lm_sensors"

Manually run logwatch to get a preview of what you’ll see:

logwatch --range today --mailto 

Troubleshooting

ZFS-ZED not sending email

If ZED isn’t sending emails it’s likely due to an error in the config. For some reason default values still need to be uncommented for zed to work, even if left unaltered. Thanks to this post for the info.

Samba share access denied

If you get access denied when trying to write to a SMB share, double check the file permissions on the server level. Execute chmod / chown as appropriate. Example:

chown user1 -R /mnt/example/user1

Using a Bus Pirate to fix Seagate drives

I wrote these notes almost three years ago but never published them. Since I’ve now referenced them again I’ll publish them albeit in a crude state.

7200.11 BSY bug

I had a need to fix the firmware of a Seagate  7200.11 BSY bug, which involved connecting to the RS232 serial ports on the drive and issuing a few commands to clear SMART data. Details here:

http://www.arvydas.co.uk/2012/07/fixing-a-seagate-7200-11-hard-drive-with-arduino/

http://hackaday.com/2012/07/30/recovering-from-a-seagate-hdd-firmware-bug/

https://plus.google.com/u/0/+BillFarrow/posts/ir1xnfu46TE

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:F1J2P5E3mrIJ:haquesprojects.com/embedded-device-hacking/using-a-bus-pirate-as-a-usb-ttl-serial-converter/+&cd=4&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

http://fillwithcoolblogname.blogspot.com/2011/02/fixing-seagate-720011-bsy-0-lba-fw-bug.html

Using a Bus Pirate:

Find out what device the bus pirate is given:

dmesg | tail

usb 1-1.6.3: FTDI USB Serial Device converter now attached to ttyUSB0

Next, add your user to the dialout group (thanks to here for the hint)

usermod -a -G dialout $USER

You may need to log out and log back in after issuing the above command for it to take effect.

Fire up a terminal editor (I used screen after learning about my options from here.)

screen /dev/ttyUSB0 115200 8N1

Press Enter and you should be greeted with the Bus Pirate’s HiZ> prompt. Next, enter the following:

1. m – to change the mode
2. 3 – for UART mode
3. 7 – for 38400 bps
4. 1 – for 8 bits of data, no parity control
5. 1 – for 1 stop bit
6. 1 – for Idle 1 receive polarity
7. 2 – for Normal output type

At the “UART>” prompt. Enter “(0)” to show available macros:

UART>(0)
0.Macro menu
1.Transparent bridge
2.Live monitor
3.Bridge with flow control

Now enter “(3)”  (don’t forget the parenthesis – this burned me) to enter bridge mode with flow control and hit “y” at the “Are you sure?” prompt. The terminal will receive input from your device.

UART>(3)
UART bridge
Reset to exit
Are you sure?

Now plug in pins to hard drive. Use this site as a guide for which pins to use. The drive should be upside down to expose the controller board.
BP Gnd (top left) to Gnd on drive (Second pin from the left)
BP MISO (UART RX – bottom right) to TX on drive (far right pin)
BP MOSI (UART TX) to RX on drive (Seconf from the right pin)

I only ended up needing MISO & MOSI, ground wasn’t required.

Un-screw hard drive, add shim to prevent electrical contact

Power on drive

CTRL+Z

/2

(wait 30 seconds)

Z

(un-shim, re-screw hard drive)

U

/1

N1

Power down drive, wait few seconds, power back up

CTRL + Z

m0,2,2,0,0,0,0,22 (enter)

Clear SMART data

A couple years later I came across some old NAS drives that I wanted to use. I ran a full battery of burn-in tests using badblocks and the drives passed with flying colors. The only problem is they had SMART data saying Reallocated_Sector_Ct was past the threshold. Barely. I decided to roll the dice with these drives anyway given their proven performance currently and over the years.

The problem is FreeNAS will e-mail spam you about that SMART attribute. I couldn’t find a good way to suppress those alerts yet have them alert if that number gets worse, so I decided to cheat and clear all SMART data from those drives, thus getting FreeNAS happy with me yet alerting me if the reallocated sector count increases in the future.

I read a few sources to accomplish this with my bus pirate.

https://blog.zencoffee.org/2011/07/bus-pirate-as-ftdi-cable/

https://forum.hddguru.com/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=33886&start=20&mobile=mobile

https://forum.hddguru.com/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=33886&start=20

Use the same instructions as above for hooking up the bus pirate to the drive’s RS232 ports (to the right of the SATA port.)

Once you’ve serial connected to the drive, it’s three simple commands to clear the SMART data:

CTRL + Z
/1
N1