Tag Archives: VPN

Fix no internet in pfSense OpenVPN

I came across an issue with pfSense where I had created an openVPN connection but it would not work with internet traffic. The VPN connection established fine and I could connect to all internal hosts, but all internet traffic simply didn’t work. I checked the firewall logs and there were no firewall denies.

After scratching my head for a while I came across this post which suggests it might be due to the fact that there was no outbound NAT defined for the VPN network I created.

I went to Firewall / NAT / Outbound and sure enough, there was no outbound NAT rule for my VPN network. I manually created it for my VPN network and voila! Internet over the VPN!

Site to site VPN between pfSense and DD-WRT

I’ve been trying to establish a site-to-site VPN connection between my house and my parents’ for a couple years now. Each time I try I become frustrated and eventually give up. No longer! I’ve finally gotten a site to site VPN working between my pfSense router and my parents’ Netgear Nighthawk R8000 running DD-WRT v3.

It was quite the undertaking for me to get these two systems talking. I drew a lot of inspiration from here. In order to get this to work you need to keep these things in consideration:

  • Protocol, port, device type, encryption cipher, hash algorithm, TLS authentication, and certificate settings all need to match
  • VPN IP addresses need to be assigned to both the server and the client
  • Routes for each network need to be established on both devices
  • Firewalls need to be configured to allow traffic to/from each network through the VPN tunnel

I used the following settings to get things working between these two devices:

OpenVPN Server (pfSense)

If you haven’t already, generate a certificate authority and server certificate. Do this in System / Cert Manager and click Add. When generating the certificate make sure the Certificate Type is Server Certificate.

General

  • Server mode: Peer to Peer (SSL / TLS)
  • Protocol: UDP
  • Device mode: tap

Cryptographic settings

  • Enable authentication of TLS packets: checked
  • Automatically generate a shared TLS authentication key: checked
  • Peer certificate authority & Server Certificate:  Select appropriate CA / certificate from the dropdowns here
  • DH Parameter length: 2048
  • Encryption algorithm: AES-256-CBC
  • Auth digest algorithm: SHA256 (256 BIT)
  • Certificate depth: One (Client + Server)

Tunnel Settings

  • IPv4 Tunnel network: Enter a unique (not existing on either netwonk) network here in CIDR format, ex 10.1.1.0/24
  • Ipv4 Local Network(s): Enter the networks you would like the remote network to access
  • IPv4 Remote Network(s): Enter the networks you would like the local network to access
  • Compression: Enabled with Adaptive Compression

Advanced Configuration

Optional? I found that for some reason the routing table wasn’t properly populated with the remote network on my pfSense server. I added a custom option to take care of that:

route <remote network> <remote subnet mask> <remote VPN IP>

In my example it ended up being “route 192.168.98.0 255.255.255.0 10.54.98.2”

Key export

You will need to export the Certificate Authority certificate as well as the client certificate & private key files for use with dd-wrt. Do this by going to System / Cert Manager. There are little icons to the right of the certificates where you can click to download them.

Export the CA certificate as well as both the certificate and key from whatever was specified in the Server Certificate section from the above OpenVPN configuration.

OpenVPN client (dd-wrt)

Go to Services / VPN and look for the OpenVPN Client section

  • Start OpenVPN Client: Enable
  • Tunnel Device: TAP
  • Tunnel Protocol: UDP
  • Encryption cipher: AES-256 CBC
  • Hash Algorithm: SHA256
  • User Pass Authentication: Disable
  • Advanced Options: Enable
  • LZO Compression: Adaptive
  • NAT: Enable
  • Firewall protection: Disable
  • Bridge TAP to br0: Enable
  • TLS Auth Key: <Paste the contents of the “Key” section under pfSense’s Cryptographic settings area of the OpenVPN server configuration>
  • CA Cert: <Paste contents of downloaded CRT file from pfsense’s CA>
  • Public Client Cert: <Paste contents of downloaded CRT file from pfsense’s certificate section>
  • Private Client Key: <Paste contents of downloaded .key file from pfsense’s certificate section>

IN THEORY this should be all that you have to do. The tunnel should establish and traffic should flow between both networks. Sadly it wasn’t that simple for my setup.

Troubleshooting

One-way VPN

After setting up the tunnel I saw everything was connected but the traffic was unidirectional (remote could ping local network but not visa versa.)

On the pfsense router, I ran

netstat -r | grep 192.168

(change the grep to whatever your remote network is)

I noticed that there were no routes to the remote network. To fix this I appended a server option in the OpenVPN server config (adjust this to match your networks)

route 192.168.98.0 255.255.255.0 10.54.98.2

Blocked by iptables

Adding the route on the server helped but things still weren’t getting through. I enabled logging on the DD-WRT side, consoled into the router, and ran the following:

watch -n 1 "dmesg | grep 192.168.98"

This revealed a lot of dropped packets from my OpenVPN server’s network. After a lot of digging I found this forum post that suggested a couple custom iptables rules to allow traffic between the bridged network and the OpenVPN network (adjust interface names as necessary)

iptables -I FORWARD -i br0 -o tap1 -j ACCEPT 
iptables -I FORWARD -i tap1 -o br0 -j ACCEPT

This doesn’t survive a reboot, so you’ll want to enter those two commands in the Administration / Commands section of the dd-wrt web configuration and click “Save Firewall”

Success

Finally, after a custom routing rule on the pfsense side and a custom iptables rule on the dd-wrt side, two way VPN has been established!

Install Guacamole 0.9.8 in CentOS 7

Lately I’ve embarked in installing the latest version of Guacamole, 0.9.8, in a fresh installation of CentOS 7. Kudos go to the excellent guide I found from here.  Derek’s guide is for 0.9.7 but it also works for 0.9.8. I ran into a few hangups but after I figured them out it worked beautifully.

First, fetch the needed binaries:

rpm -Uvh http://mirror.metrocast.net/fedora/epel/7/x86_64/e/epel-release-7-5.noarch.rpm   # EPEL Repo
yum -y install wget   # wget
wget http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/home:/felfert/Fedora_19/home:felfert.repo && mv home\:felfert.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/   # Felfert Repo
yum -y install tomcat libvncserver freerdp libvorbis libguac libguac-client-vnc libguac-client-rdp libguac-client-ssh
yum -y install cairo-devel pango-devel libvorbis-devel openssl-devel gcc pulseaudio-libs-devel libvncserver-devel terminus-fonts \
freerdp-devel uuid-devel libssh2-devel libtelnet libtelnet-devel tomcat-webapps tomcat-admin-webapps java-1.7.0-openjdk.x86_64

Next, install guac server (the latest as of this writing is 0.9.8)

mkdir ~/guacamole && cd ~/
wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/guacamole/files/current/source/guacamole-server-0.9.8.tar.gz
tar -xzf guacamole-server-0.9.8.tar.gz && cd guacamole-server-0.9.8
./configure --with-init-dir=/etc/init.d
make
make install
ldconfig

I received an error while running ./configure :

checking for jpeg_start_compress in -ljpeg... no
configure: error: "libjpeg is required for writing jpeg messages"

It means I didn’t have libjpeg dev libraries installed. Easily fixed:

yum install libjpeg-turbo-devel

Next, install the guacamole war files

mkdir -p /var/lib/guacamole && cd /var/lib/guacamole/
 wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/guacamole/files/current/binary/guacamole-0.9.8.war -O guacamole.war
 ln -s /var/lib/guacamole/guacamole.war /var/lib/tomcat/webapps/
 rm -rf /usr/lib64/freerdp/guacdr.so
 ln -s /usr/local/lib/freerdp/guacdr.so /usr/lib64/freerdp/

Next comes configuring the database

#Install database and connector
yum -y install mariadb mariadb-server
 mkdir -p ~/guacamole/sqlauth && cd ~/guacamole/sqlauth
 wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/guacamole/files/current/extensions/guacamole-auth-jdbc-0.9.8.tar.gz
 tar -zxf guacamole-auth-jdbc-0.9.8.tar.gz
 wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/Connector/j/mysql-connector-java-5.1.32.tar.gz
 tar -zxf mysql-connector-java-5.1.32.tar.gz
 mkdir -p /usr/share/tomcat/.guacamole/{extensions,lib}
 mv guacamole-auth-jdbc-0.9.8/mysql/guacamole-auth-jdbc-mysql-0.9.8.jar /usr/share/tomcat/.guacamole/extensions/
 mv mysql-connector-java-5.1.32/mysql-connector-java-5.1.32-bin.jar /usr/share/tomcat/.guacamole/lib/
 systemctl restart mariadb.service

#Configure database
mysqladmin -u root password MySQLRootPass
mysql -u root -p   # Enter above password
create database guacdb;
create user 'guacuser'@'localhost' identified by 'guacDBpass';
grant select,insert,update,delete on guacdb.* to 'guacuser'@'localhost';
flush privileges;
quit
cd ~/guacamole/sqlauth/guacamole-auth-jdbc-0.9.8/mysql/schema/
cat ./*.sql | mysql -u root -p guacdb   # Enter SQL root password set above

Now we need to configure guacamole to use our new database.

mkdir -p /etc/guacamole/ && vi /etc/guacamole/guacamole.properties
# MySQL properties
mysql-hostname: localhost
mysql-port: 3306
mysql-database: guacdb
mysql-username: guacuser
mysql-password: guacDBpass

# Additional settings
mysql-disallow-duplicate-connections: false

Link the file you just made to the tomcat configuration directory

ln -s /etc/guacamole/guacamole.properties /usr/share/tomcat/.guacamole/

Cleanup temporary files and enable necessary services on boot

cd ~ && rm -rf guacamole*
systemctl enable tomcat.service && systemctl enable mariadb.service && chkconfig guacd on
systemctl reboot

Lastly, open the firewall up for port 8080 (thanks stack overflow)

firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port=8080/tcp
firewall-cmd --reload

Navigate to guacamole in your browser: http://<IP address>/guacamole:8080. You should see the guacamole login screen.

Additional hiccup

This new version of guacamole has a different user interface. It took me longer than I’d like to admit to realize how to get out of a guacamole session once it’s started. Sessions are now full screen with no obvious way to exit.

The way to exit the full screen guacamole session is to press the magic key combination of ctrl, alt, and shift. It will reveal a menu from the side. This is all clearly defined in the user documentation, but my lack of willingness to read it caused me to waste much time. Lesson learned!

Disable IPv6 on an interface in Linux

After tethering my phone to my laptop and googling “what is my ip” I was surprised to find an IPv6 address. Apparently my mobile carrier has implemented IPv6. Bravo to them.

Unfortunately, when I initiated my VPN, which is supposed to tunnel all traffic through it, my IP address didn’t change. This is because my VPN is IPv4 only. My system prioritizes IPv6 traffic, so if I happen to go to any IPv6 enabled site such as google, my VPN tunnel is bypassed entirely.

I don’t like the security implications of this. The long term solution is to implement IPv6 with my VPN; however while traveling I won’t be able to do that. The short term solution is to simply disable IPv6 for the interface that has it, in my case usb0 as that is what is tethered to my phone.

This simple command will do the trick:

sudo sh -c 'echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/usb0/disable_ipv6'

Change USB0 to whatever interface you would like (or all of them) and you’re done! Thanks to this site for the information.

 

 

 

Migrate from Sophos UTM to pfSense part 1

I’ve been using a Sophos UTM virtual appliance as my main firewall / threat manager appliance for about two years now. I’ve had some strange issues with this solution off and on but for the most part it worked. The number of odd issues has begun to build, though.

Recently it decided to randomly drop some connections even though logs showed no dropped packets. The partial connections spanned across various networks and devices. I never did figure out what was wrong. After two days of furiously investigating (including disconnecting all devices from the network), the problem went away completely on its own with no action on my part. It was maddening – enough to drive me to pfSense.

As of version 2.2 pfSense can be fully virtualized in Xen, thanks to FreeBSD 10.1. This allowed me the option to migrate. Below are the initial steps I’ve taken to move to pfSense.

Features checklist

I am currently using the following functions in Sophos UTM. My goal is to move these functions to equivalents in pfSense:

  • Network firewall
  • Web Application Firewall, also known as a reverse proxy.
  • NTP server
  • PPPOE client
  • DHCP server
  • DNS server
  • Transparent proxy for content filtering and reporting
  • E-mail server / SPAM protection
  • Intrusion Detection system
  • Anti-virus
  • SOCKS proxy
  • Remote access portal (for downloading VPN configurations, etc)
  • Citrix Xenserver support (for live migration etc)
  • Log all events to a syslog server
  • VPN server
  • Daily / weekly / monthly e-mail reports on bandwidth usage, CPU, most visited sites, etc.

I haven’t migrated all of these function over to pfSense which is why this article is only Part 1. Here is what I have done so far.

Xenserver support

Installing xen tools is fairly straightforward thanks to this article. It’s simply a matter of dropping to a shell on your pfSense VM to install and enable xen tools

pkg install xe-guest-utilities
echo "xenguest_enable=\"YES\"" >> /etc/rc.conf.local
ln -s /usr/local/etc/rc.d/xenguest /usr/local/etc/rc.d/xenguest.sh 
service xenguest start

PPPoE client

The wizard works fine for configuring PPPOE, however I experienced some very strange issues with internet speed. Downstream would be fine but upstream would be incredibly slow. Another symptom was NAT / port forwarding appearing not to work at all.

It turns out the issue was pfSense’s virtualized status. There is a bug in the virtio driver that handles virtualized networking. You have to disable all hardware offloading on both the xenserver hypervisor and the pfSense VM to work around the bug. Details on how to do this can be found here. After that fix was implemented, speed and performance went back to normal.

DNS server

To get this working like it did in Sophos you have to disable the default DNS resolver service and enable the DNS forwarder service instead. Once DNS forwarder is enabled, check the box “register DHCP leases in DNS” so that DHCP hostnames come through to clients.

Syslog

Navigate to Status / system logs / settings tab and  tick “Send log messages to remote syslog server” and fill out the appropriate settings.

Note for Splunk users: the Technology Add-on for parsing pfsense logs expects the sourcetype to equal pfsense (not syslog). Create a manual input for logs coming from pfsense so it’s tagged as pfsense and not syslog (thanks to this post for the solution on how to get the TA to work properly.)

VPN

OpenVPN – wizard ran fine. Install OpenVPN Client Export utility package for easy exporting to clients. Once package is installed go to VPN / OpenVPN and you will see a new tab – Client Export.

Note you will need to create a user and check the “create certificate” checkbox or add a user certificate to existing user by going to System / User manager, Editing the user and clicking the plus next to User Certificates. The export utility will only show users that have valid certificates attached to them. If no users have valid certificates the Client Export tab will be blank.

Firewall

One useful setting to note is to enable NAT reflection. This allows you to access NATed resources as if you were outside the network, even though you are inside it. Do this by going to System / Advanced and clicking on the Firewall / NAT tab. Scroll halfway down to find the Network Address Translation section. Change NAT reflection mode for port forwards to Enable (Pure NAT)

It’s also very helpful to configure host and port aliases by going to Firewall / Aliases. This is roughly equivalent to creating Network and Host definitions in Sophos. When you write firewall rules you can simply use the alias instead of writing out hosts IPs and ports.

So far so good

This is the end of part 1. I’ve successfully moved the following services from Sophos UTM to pfSense:

  • Network firewall
  • PPPOE client
  • Log all events to a syslog server
  • VPN server
  • NTP server
  • DHCP server
  • DNS server
  • Xenserver support

I’m still working on moving the other services over. I’ve yet to find a viable alternative to the web application firewall but I haven’t given up yet.

Configure full VPN tunnel in Sophos UTM

For years now I have had a successful split tunnel VPN with my Sophos UTM. Recently I’ve wanted to have a full tunnel option for greater security in remote areas (hotel wi-fi, etc.) Unfortunately setting up such a thing in Sophos is NOT straightforward.

The biggest problem I had was that no websites would work after the VPN was initiated. NSlookup was fine, connection was fine, even internal sites would load properly, but no external internet.

Thanks to this post I finally found the culprit: the pesky allowed networks feature for each UTM function. In my case, the VPN was allowing all the necessary traffic through but my transparent proxy was denying web access. I had to add my VPN pool to the list of allowed networks to my proxy.

To summarize, this is what you must do to have a full VPN tunnel:

  • Configure the desired method in the Remote Access section. Take note of whatever IP pool you use for your VPN. In my case I used VPN Pool (SSL)
  • Ensure that internet access is in the list of allowed networks for the user you’ve configured for VPN (Any, or Internet IPv4/6)
  • Add your VPN pool to the list of allowed networks for each service you use.
    • Network services / DNS
    • Web Protection / Web Filtering
  • Profit