Tag Archives: KVM

KVM with vga passthrough in arch linux

I’ve once again switched from Proxmox to Arch Linux for my desktop machine. Both use KVM so it’s really just a matter of using the different VM manager syntax (virt-manager vs qm.) I used my notes from my previous stint with Arch, my article on GPU Passthrough in Proxmox as well as a thorough reading of the Arch wiki’s PCI Passthrough article.

Enable IOMMU

Configure GRUB to load the necessary iommu modules at boot. Append amd_iommu=on iommu=pt to the end of GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT (change accordingly if you have Intel instead of AMD)

sudo vim /etc/default/grub
...
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="loglevel=3 amd_iommu=on iommu=pt"

Run update-grub

sudo update-grub

Reserve GPU for VFIO

Reserve the GPU you wish to pass through to a VM for use with the vfio kernel driver (so the host OS doesn’t interfere with it)

  1. Determine the PCI address of your GPU
    1. Run lspci -v and look for your card. Mine was 01:00.0 & 01:00.1. You can omit the part after the decimal to include them both in one go – so in that case it would be 01:00
    2. Run lspci -n -s <PCI address from above> to obtain vendor IDs.
      Example :
      lspci -n -s 01:00
      01:00.0 0300: 10de:1b81 (rev a1)
      01:00.1 0403: 10de:10f0 (rev a1)
  2. Assign your GPU to vfio driver using the IDs obtained above.
    Example using above IDs:
    echo "options vfio-pci ids=10de:1b81,10de:10f0" >> /etc/modprobe.d/vfio.conf

Reboot the host to put the kernel / drivers into effect.

Configure virt-manager

Install virt-manager, dnsmasq & libvirtd:

pacman -Sy libvirtd virt-manager dnsmasq
sudo systemctl enable libvirtd
sudo systemctl start libvirtd

Configure Networking

Assuming you’re using network manager for your connections, create a bridge (thanks to ciberciti.biz & the arch wiki for information on how to do so.) Replace interface names with ones corresponding to your machine:

sudo nmcli connection add type bridge ifname br0 stp no
sudo nmcli connection add type bridge-slave ifname enp4s0 master br0 
sudo nmcli connection show
#Make note of the active connection name
sudo nmcli connection down "Wired connection 2" #from above
sudo nmcli connection up bridge-br0

Create a second bridge bound to lo0 for host-only communication. Change IP as desired:

sudo nmcli connection add type bridge ifname br99 stp no ip4 192.168.2.1/24
sudo nmcli connection add type bridge-slave ifname lo master br99
sudo nmcli connection up bridge-br99

Configure VM

Initial configuration

When creating the passthrough VM, make sure chipset is Q35.

Set the CPU model to host-passthrough (type it in, there is no dropdown for it.)

When adding disks / other devices, set the device model to virtio

Add your GPU by going to Add Hardware and finding it under PCI Host Device.

Windows 10 specific tweaks

If your passthrough VM is going to be windows based, some tweaks are required to get the GPU to work properly within the VM.

Ignore MSRs (blue screen fix)

Later versions of Windows 10 instantly bluescreen with kmode_exception_not_handled unless you pass an option to ignore MSRs. Add the kvm ignore_msrs=1 option in /etc/modprobe.d/kvm.conf to do so. Optionally add the report_ignored_msrs=0 option to squelch massive amounts of kernel messages every time an MSR was ignored.

echo "options kvm ignore_msrs=1" >> /etc/modprobe.d/kvm.conf
#Optional - ignore kernel messages from ignored MSRs
echo "options kvm report_ignored_msrs=0" >> /etc/modprobe.d/kvm.conf

Reboot to make those changes take effect.

NVIDIA Code 43 workaround

Use the virsh edit command to make some tweaks to the VM configuration. We need to hide the fact that this is a VM otherwise the GPU drivers will not load and will throw Error 43. We need to add a vendor_id in the hyperv section, and create a kvm section enabling hidden state, which hides certain CPU flags that the drivers use to detect if they’re in a VM or not.

sudo virsh edit <VM_NAME>

<features>
	<hyperv>
		...
		<vendor_id state='on' value='1234567890ab'/>
		...
	</hyperv>
	...
	<kvm>
	<hidden state='on'/>
	</kvm>
</features>

Optimize CPU

Determine architecture

If you operate on a multi-core system such as my AMD Ryzen Threadripper the you will want to optimize your CPU core configuration in the VM per the CPU Pinning section in the Arch Wiki

Determine your CPU topology by running lscpu -e and lstopo The important things to look for are the CPU number and core number. On my box, it looks like this:

CPU NODE SOCKET CORE L1d:L1i:L2:L3 ONLINE MAXMHZ MINMHZ
0 0 0 0 0:0:0:0 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
1 0 0 1 1:1:1:0 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
2 0 0 2 2:2:2:0 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
3 0 0 3 3:3:3:0 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
4 0 0 4 4:4:4:1 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
5 0 0 5 5:5:5:1 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
6 0 0 6 6:6:6:1 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
7 0 0 7 7:7:7:1 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
8 0 0 8 8:8:8:2 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
9 0 0 9 9:9:9:2 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
10 0 0 10 10:10:10:2 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
11 0 0 11 11:11:11:2 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
12 0 0 12 12:12:12:3 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
13 0 0 13 13:13:13:3 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
14 0 0 14 14:14:14:3 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
15 0 0 15 15:15:15:3 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
16 0 0 0 0:0:0:0 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
17 0 0 1 1:1:1:0 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
18 0 0 2 2:2:2:0 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
19 0 0 3 3:3:3:0 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
20 0 0 4 4:4:4:1 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
21 0 0 5 5:5:5:1 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
22 0 0 6 6:6:6:1 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
23 0 0 7 7:7:7:1 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
24 0 0 8 8:8:8:2 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
25 0 0 9 9:9:9:2 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
26 0 0 10 10:10:10:2 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
27 0 0 11 11:11:11:2 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
28 0 0 12 12:12:12:3 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
29 0 0 13 13:13:13:3 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
30 0 0 14 14:14:14:3 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000
31 0 0 15 15:15:15:3 yes 3400.0000 2200.0000

From the above output I see my CPU core 0 is shared by CPUs 0 & 16, meaning CPU 0 and CPU 16 (as seen by the Linux kernel) are hyperthreaded to the same physical CPU core.

Especially for gaming, you want to keep all threads on the same CPU cores (for multithreading) and the same CPU die (on my threadripper, CPUs 0-7 reside on one physical die, and CPUs 8-15 reside on the other, within the same socket.)

In my case I want to dedicate one CPU die to my VM with its accompanying hyperthreads (CPUs 0-7 & hyperthreads 16-23) You can accomplish this using the virsh edit command and creating a cputune section (make sure you have a matching vcpu count for the number of cores you’re configuring.) Also edit CPU mode with the proper topology of 1 socket, 1 die, 8 cores with 2 threads. Lastly, configure memory to only be from the proper NUMA node the CPU cores your VM is using (Read here for more info.)

sudo virsh edit <VM_NAME>

<domain type='kvm'>
  ...
  <vcpu placement='static' cpuset='0-7,16-23'>16</vcpu> 
  <cputune>
    <vcpupin vcpu='0' cpuset='0'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='1' cpuset='16'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='2' cpuset='1'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='3' cpuset='17'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='4' cpuset='2'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='5' cpuset='18'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='6' cpuset='3'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='7' cpuset='19'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='8' cpuset='4'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='9' cpuset='20'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='10' cpuset='5'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='11' cpuset='21'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='12' cpuset='6'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='13' cpuset='22'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='14' cpuset='7'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='15' cpuset='23'/>
    <emulatorpin cpuset='0-7','26-23'/>
  </cputune>
  ...
  <cpu mode='host-passthrough' check='none'>
    <topology sockets='1' dies='1' cores='8' threads='2'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='topoext'/>
    <numa>
      <cell id='0' cpus='0-15' memory='16777216' unit='KiB'/>
    </numa>
  </cpu>
  ...
</domain>

Configure NUMA

Non-uniform memory access is essential for 1st and 2nd gen Ryzen chips. It turns out that by default my motherboard hid the real NUMA configuration from the operating system. Remedy this by changing the BIOS setting to set Memory Interleaving = Channel (for my ASRock X399 motherboard it’s in CBS / DF options.) See here: https://www.reddit.com/r/Amd/comments/6vrcq0/psa_threadripper_umanuma_setting_in_bios/

After changing BIOS setting, lstopo now shows proper configuration:

CPU frequency

Change CPU frequency setting to use performance mode:

sudo pacman -S cpupower
sudo cpupower frequency-set -g performance

Enable Hugepages

Append default_hugepagesz=1G hugepagesz=1G hugepages=16 to the kernel line in /etc/default/grub and re-run sudo grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

Configure FIFO CPU scheduling

The Arch Wiki mentions to run qemu-system-x86_64 with taskset and chrt but doesn’t mention how to do so if you’re using virt-manager. Fortunately this reddit thread outlined how to accomplish it: libvirt hooks. Create the following script and place it in /etc/libvirt/hooks/qemu  , change the VM variable to match the name of your VM, mark that new file as executable (chmod +x /etc/libvirt/hooks/qemu ) and restart libvirtd

#!/bin/bash
#Hook to change VM to FIFO scheduling to decrease latency
#Place this file in /etc/libvirt/hooks/qemu and mark it executable

#Change the VM variable to match the name of your VM
VM="win10"

if [ "$1" == "$VM" ] && [ "$2" == "started" ]; then
  if pid=$(pidof qemu-system-x86_64); then
     chrt -f -p 1 $pid
    echo $(date) changing CPU scheduling to FIFO for VM $1 pid $pid >> /var/log/libvirthook.log
  else
    echo $(date) Unable to acquire PID of $1 >> /var/log/libvirthook.log
  fi
fi
#Additional debug
#echo $(date) libvirt hook arg1=$1 arg2=$2 arg3=$3 arg4=$4 pid=$pid >> /var/log/libvirthook.log 

Isolate CPUs

Update 7/28/20: I no longer do this in favor of the qemu hook script above, which prioritizes to p1 the qemu process for the cores it needs. I’m leaving this section here for historical/additional tweaking purposes.

Update 6/28/20: Additional tuning since I was having some stuttering and framerate issues. Also read here about the emulatorpin option

Dedicate CPUs to the VM (host will not use them) – append isolcups, nohz_full & rcu_nocbs kernel parameters into /etc/default/grub

...
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT=... isolcpus=0-7,16-23 nohz_full=0-7,16-23 rcu_nocbs=0-7,16-23
...

Update grub:

sudo grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

Reboot, then check if it worked:

cat /proc/cmdline
BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/mapper/arch-root rw loglevel=3 amd_iommu=on iommu=pt isolcpus=0-7,16-23 nohz_full=0-7,16-23 rcu_nocbs=0-7,16-23
taskset -cp 1
pid 1's current affinity list: 8-15,24-31

You can still tell programs to use the CPUs the VM has manually with the taskset command:

chrt -r 1 taskset -c <cores to use> <name of program/process>

Low Latency Audio

Upbate 7/8/2020: I found this article and this reddit thread (and this one) on how to use pulseaudio for your guest VM to get low latency guest VM audio piped to the host machine.

Update qemu config

edit /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf: uncomment the line #user = "root" and replace “root” with your username

Update pulseaudio config

Edit /etc/pulse/daemon.conf and uncomment the following lines (remove semicolon)

;default-sample-rate = 44100
;alternate-sample-rate = 48000

Note: Change VM audio settings to match 44100 sample rate

Edit /etc/pulse/default.pa and append auth-anonymous=1 to load-module module-native-protocol-unix

load-module module-native-protocol-unix auth-anonymous=1

The restart pulseaudio:

pulseaudio -k

Update VM XML

remove all audio devices from the virtual hardware details bar (left side in VM info view).

Edit XML via virsh edit <VM_NAME>

Make sure top line reads

<domain type='kvm' xmlns:qemu='http://libvirt.org/schemas/domain/qemu/1.0'>

Add the following after </devices> (bottom of file)

<qemu:commandline>
    <qemu:arg value='-device'/>
    <qemu:arg value='ich9-intel-hda,bus=pcie.0,addr=0x1b'/>
    <qemu:arg value='-device'/>
    <qemu:arg value='hda-micro,audiodev=hda'/>
    <qemu:arg value='-audiodev'/>
    <qemu:arg value='pa,id=hda,server=unix:/run/user/1000/pulse/native'/>
</qemu:commandline>

Replace /user/1000 with the UID of your user (output of id command)

Final Win10 XML tweaks for 1950x threadripper

<domain type='kvm' id='1' xmlns:qemu='http://libvirt.org/schemas/domain/qemu/1.0'>
 ...
  <memory unit='KiB'>16777216</memory>
  <currentMemory unit='KiB'>16777216</currentMemory>
  <memoryBacking>
    <hugepages/>
  </memoryBacking>
  <vcpu placement='static'>16</vcpu>
  <cputune>
    <vcpupin vcpu='0' cpuset='0'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='1' cpuset='16'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='2' cpuset='1'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='3' cpuset='17'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='4' cpuset='2'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='5' cpuset='18'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='6' cpuset='3'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='7' cpuset='19'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='8' cpuset='4'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='9' cpuset='20'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='10' cpuset='5'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='11' cpuset='21'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='12' cpuset='6'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='13' cpuset='22'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='14' cpuset='7'/>
    <vcpupin vcpu='15' cpuset='23'/>
    <emulatorpin cpuset='8-15,24-31'/>
  </cputune>
  <numatune>
    <memory mode='strict' nodeset='0'/>
  </numatune>
  ...
  <features>
     ...
    <hyperv>
     ...
      <vendor_id state='on' value='1234567890ab'/>
    </hyperv>
    <kvm>
      <hidden state='on'/>
    </kvm>
    ...
  </features>
  <cpu mode='host-passthrough' check='none'>
    <topology sockets='1' dies='1' cores='8' threads='2'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='topoext'/>
    <numa>
      <cell id='0' cpus='0-15' memory='16777216' unit='KiB'/>
    </numa>
  </cpu>
   ...
  <qemu:commandline>
    <qemu:arg value='-device'/>
    <qemu:arg value='ich9-intel-hda,bus=pcie.0,addr=0x1b'/>
    <qemu:arg value='-device'/>
    <qemu:arg value='hda-micro,audiodev=hda'/>
    <qemu:arg value='-audiodev'/>
    <qemu:arg value='pa,id=hda,server=unix:/run/user/1000/pulse/native'/>
  </qemu:commandline>
</domain>

Profit

I’m very pleased with my current setup. It works well!

migrate between amd & intel in proxmox

I recently acquired an Intel based server and plugged it into my AMD-based Proxmox cluster. I ran into an issue transferring from AMD to Intel boxes (the other direction worked fine.) After a few moments, every VM that moved from AMD to Intel would kernel panic.

Fortunately I found here that the fix is to add a few custom CPU flags to your VMs. Once I did this they could move back and forth freely (assuming they had the kvm64 CPU assigned to them – host obviously won’t work.)

qm set *VMID* --args "-cpu 'kvm64,+ssse3,+sse4.1,+sse4.2,+x2apic'"

Fix proxmox iommu operation not permitted

In trying to passthrough some LSI SAS cards to a VM I kept receiving this error:

kvm: -device vfio-pci,host=0000:03:00.0,id=hostpci0,bus=ich9-pcie-port-1,addr=0x0,rombar=0: vfio 0000:03:00.0: failed to setup container for group 7: Failed to set iommu for container: Operation not permitted

I found on this post that the fix is to add a line to /etc/modprobe.d/vfio.conf with the following:

options vfio_iommu_type1 allow_unsafe_interrupts=1

then reboot the host. It worked in my case!

proxmox 6 NVIDIA GPU passthrough fix

I upgraded to ProxMox 6.0 and to my dismay my Windows VM suddenly began receiving the dreaded Code 43 error. After much digging I finally found this post on the ProxMox forums which outlines what needs to happen.

In my case, all I needed to do was tweak my machine type. There is no GUI option to do this, so it had to be done in the command line:

qm set <VM_ID> -machine pc-q35-3.1

That was all it took!

The forum also suggested a few other things if that didn’t work. I didn’t end up needing them but I’ll put them here in case it’s helpful:

Add args to your VM config file:

args: -cpu 'host,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,hv_vendor_id=NV43FIX,kvm=off'

Add a few options to the CPU line:

cpu: host,hidden=1,flags=+pcid,hv-vendor-id=proxmox

With the above settings I also discovered there is no need to have x-vga=on anymore. This allows you to have both the regular VM console and your graphics card if you so desire.

Gaming VM with graphics passthrough in Arch Linux

At one point I had KVM with GPU passthrough running in Arch Linux. I have since moved away from it back to ProxMox. Here are my notes I jotted down when I did this in Arch. Sorry these are just rough notes, I didn’t end up using Arch for long enough to turn this into a polished article.


pacman -Sy qemu netctl ovmf virt-manager

When creating VM, make sure chipset is Q35

CPU model host-passthrough (write it in)

Create VirtIO SCSI controller and attach drives to it

NIC device model: virtio

—- networking —-

Create bridge:

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Bridge_with_netctl

Copy /etc/netctl/examples/bridge to /etc/netctl/bridge

/etc/netctl/bridge
Description="Example Bridge connection"
Interface=br0
Connection=bridge
BindsToInterfaces=(enp4s0)
IP=dhcp

#Optional - give your system another IP for host-only networking
ExecUpPost="ip addr add 192.168.2.1/24 dev br0"
sudo netctl reenable bridge
sudo netctl restart bridge

In the VM add another network interface, also assign to br0. Manually specify IP in guest VM to match subnet specified above in ExecUpPost

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/PCI_passthrough_via_OVMF

Allow UEFI bios: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/libvirt#UEFI_Support

sudo vim /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf

/etc/libvirt/qemu.conf
nvram = [
    "/usr/share/ovmf/x64/OVMF_CODE.fd:/usr/share/ovmf/x64/OVMF_VARS.fd"
]

sudo systemctl restart libvirtd

Edit VM hardware:

CLI: sudo virsh edit <vm name>

GUI: double click on VM, then click second icon fnom the left (little i bubble)  Add GPU this way

Nvidia GPU: need to do x otherwise code 43

<features>
	<hyperv>
		...
		<vendor_id state='on' value='whatever'/>
		...
	</hyperv>
	...
	<kvm>
	<hidden state='on'/>
	</kvm>
</features>

Hot add CD:

sudo virsh attach-disk <VM_NAME> <ISO LOCATION>  hdb –type cdrom

Add second NIC: https://jamielinux.com/docs/libvirt-networking-handbook/bridged-network.html

sudo virsh edit win10

<interface type="bridge">
   <source bridge="br1"/>
</interface>

CPU configuration

Current Allocation 16

Topology / manually set CPU topology

1 socket, 16 cores, 1 thread

<cputune>
<vcpupin vcpu=’0′ cpuset=’16’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’1′ cpuset=’17’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’2′ cpuset=’18’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’3′ cpuset=’19’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’4′ cpuset=’20’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’5′ cpuset=’21’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’6′ cpuset=’22’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’7′ cpuset=’23’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’8′ cpuset=’24’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’9′ cpuset=’25’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’10’ cpuset=’26’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’11’ cpuset=’27’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’12’ cpuset=’28’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’13’ cpuset=’29’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’14’ cpuset=’30’/>
<vcpupin vcpu=’15’ cpuset=’31’/>
</cputune>

Running Windows 10 on Linux using KVM with VGA Passthrough

 

 

--machine q35 \
--host-device 4b:00.0 --host-device 4b:00.1 \

https://medium.com/@calerogers/gpu-virtualization-with-kvm-qemu-63ca98a6a172

 

add usb ports. Doesn’t work if nothing’s in the port?

virsh edit win10

<hostdev mode=’subsystem’ type=’usb’ managed=’yes’>
<source>
<address bus=’3′ device=’2’/>
</source>
<address type=’usb’ bus=’0′ port=’2’/>
</hostdev>

Remove Tablet input device to get 4th USB passthrough option

 

 

 

Troubleshooting

internal error: Unknown PCI header type '127'

https://forum.level1techs.com/t/trouble-passing-though-an-rx-580-to-an-ubuntu-desktop-vm/123376/3

Threadripper PCI Reset bug: https://www.reddit.com/r/Amd/comments/7gp1z7/threadripper_kvm_gpu_passthru_testers_needed/

Error 43:

<features>
	<hyperv>
		...
		<vendor_id state='on' value='whatever'/>
		...
	</hyperv>
	...
	<kvm>
	<hidden state='on'/>
	</kvm>
</features>

Audio cuts out whenever microphone is used

I had a very odd issue where all sound disappeared in my Windows VM if the microphone was used. Even simply opening up audio properties and going to the Recording tab triggered this issue. Disabling / re-enabled Special Effects for the playback device brought it back until the microphone was accessed again.

I’m using USB sound card passed through to the VM for audio. It stems from the VM’s USB controller. When I had it set to USB3 the issue would occur. When set to USB2 the issue went away. Bizarre.

Free up RAM after Proxmox live migration

I ran into an issue where after migrating a bunch of VMs off of one of  my hosts, the remaining VMs on it refused to turn on. Every time I tried the command would hang for a while and eventually error out with this message

TASK ERROR: start failed: command '/usr/bin/kvm -id <truncated>... ' failed: got timeout

I suspected this might be due to RAM use and sure enough the usage was too high for a system that didn’t have any VMs running on it.  I found here that I could run a command to flush the cache:

echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

That caused the RAM usage to go down but the symptom of the VM not starting remained. I then saw the KSM sharing still had some memory in it. I decided to restart the KSM sharing service:

sudo systemctl restart ksmtuned

After running that the VM started!

VGA Passthrough with Threadripper

An unfortunate bug exists for the AMD Threadripper family of GPUs which causes VGA Passthrough not to work properly. Fortunately some very clever people have implemented a workaround to allow proper VGA passthrough until a proper Linux Kernel patch can be accepted and implemented. See here for the whole story.

Right now my Thrdearipper 1950x successfully has GPU passthrough thanks to HyenaCheeseHeads “java hack” applet.  I went this route because I really didn’t want to try and recompile my ProxMox kernel to get passthrough to work. Per the description “It is a small program that runs as any user with read/write access to sysfs (this small guide assumes “root”). The program monitors any PCIe device that is connected to VFIO-PCI when the program starts, if the device disconnects due to the issues described in this post then the program tries to re-connect the device by rewriting the bridge configuration.” Instructions taken from the above Reddit post.

  • Go to https://pastebin.com/iYg3Dngs and hit “Download” (the MD5 sum is supposed to be 91914b021b890d778f4055bcc5f41002)
  • Rename the downloaded file to “ZenBridgeBaconRecovery.java” and put it in a new folder somewhere
  • Go to the folder in a terminal and type “javac ZenBridgeBaconRecovery.java”, this should take a short while and then complete with no errors. You may need to install the Java 8 JDK to get the javac command (use your distribution’s software manager)
  • In the same folder type “sudo java ZenBridgeBaconRecovery”
  • Make sure that the PCIe device that you intend to passthru is listed as monitored with a bridge
  • Now start your VM

In my case (Debian Stretch, ProxMox) I needed to install openjdk-8-jdk-headless

sudo apt install openjdk-8-jdk-headless
javac ZenBridgeBaconRecovery.java

Next I have a little script on startup to spawn this as root in a detached tmux session, so I don’t have to remember to run it (If you try to start your VM before running this, it will hose passthrough on your system until you reboot it.) Be sure to change the script to point to wherever you compiled ZenBridgeBaconRecovery

#!/bin/bash
cd /home/nicholas  #change me to suit your needs
sudo java ZenBridgeBaconRecovery

And here is the command I use to run on startup:

tmux new -d '/home/nicholas/passthrough.sh'

Again, be sure to modify the above to point to the path of wherever you saved the above script.

So far this works pretty well for me. I hate having to run a java process as sudo, but it’s better than recompiling my kernel.


Update 6/27/2018:  I’ve created a systemd service script for the ZenBaconRecovery file to run at boot. Here is my file, placed in
/etc/systemd/system/zenbridge.service:  (change your working directory to match the zenbridgebaconrecovery java file location. Don’t forget to do systemctl daemon-reload.)

[Unit] 
Description=Zen Bridge Bacon Recovery 
After=network.target 

[Service] 
Type=simple 
User=root 
WorkingDirectory=/home/nicholas 
ExecStart=/usr/bin/java ZenBridgeBaconRecovery 
Restart=on-failure # or always, on-abort, etc 

[Install] 
WantedBy=multi-user.target 
~

Update 8/18/2018 Finally solved for everyone!

Per an update on the reddit thread motherboard manufactures have finally put out BIOS updates that resolve the PCI passthrough problems. I updated my X399 Tachi to the latest version of its UEFI BIOS (3.20) and indeed PCI passthrough worked without any more wonky workarounds!

Windows VM with GTX 1070 GPU passthrough in ProxMox 5

I started this blog four years ago to document my highly technical adventures – mainly so I could reproduce them later. One of my first articles dealt with GPU passthrough / virtualization. It was a complicated ordeal with Xen. Now that I’ve switched to KVM (ProxMox) I thought I’d give it another go. It’s still complicated but not nearly as much this time.

To get my Nvidia GTX 1070 GPU properly passed through to a Windows VM hosted by ProxMox 5 I simply followed this excellent guide written by sshaikh. I will summarize what I took from his guide to get my setup to work.

  1. Ensure VT-d is supported and enabled in the BIOS
  2. Enable IOMMU on the host
    1. append the following to the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT line in /etc/default/grub
      intel_iommu=on
    2. Save your changes by running
      update-grub
  3. Blacklist NVIDIA & Nouveau kernel modules so they don’t get loaded at boot
    1. echo "blacklist nouveau" >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf
      echo "blacklist nvidia" >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf
    2. Save your changes by running
      update-initramfs -u
  4. Add the following lines to /etc/modules
    vfio
    vfio_iommu_type1
    vfio_pci
    vfio_virqfd
  5. Determine the PCI address of your GPU
    1. Run
      lspci -v

      and look for your card. Mine was 01:00.0 & 01:00.1. You can omit the part after the decimal to include them both in one go – so in that case it would be 01:00

    2. Run lspci -n -s <PCI address> to obtain vendor IDs. Example :
      lspci -n -s 01:00
      01:00.0 0300: 10de:1b81 (rev a1)
      01:00.1 0403: 10de:10f0 (rev a1)
  6. Assign your GPU to vfio driver using the IDs obtained above. Example:
    echo "options vfio-pci ids=10de:1b81,10de:10f0" > /etc/modprobe.d/vfio.conf
  7. Reboot the host
  8. Create your Windows VM using the UEFI bios hardware option (not the deafoult seabios) but do not start it yet. Modify /etc/pve/qemu-server/<vmid>.conf and ensure the following are in the file. Create / modify existing entries as necessary.
    bios: ovmf
    machine: q35
    cpu: host,hidden=1
    numa: 1
  9. Install Windows, including VirtIO drivers. Be sure to enable Remote desktop.
  10. Pass through the GPU.
    1. Modify /etc/pve/qemu-server/<vmid>.conf and add
      hostpci0: <device address>,x-vga=on,pcie=1. Example

      hostpci0: 01:00,x-vga=on,pcie=1
  11. Profit.

Troubleshooting

Code 43

I received the dreaded code 43 error after installing CUDA drivers. The workaround was to add hidden=1 to the CPU option of the VM:

cpu: host,hidden=1

Blue screening when launching certain games

Heroes of the Storm and Starcraft II would consistently blue screen on me with the following error:

kmode_exception_not_handled

The fix as outlined here was to create /etc/modprobe.d/kvm.conf and add the parameter “options kvm ignore_msrs=1”

echo "options kvm ignore_msrs=1" > /etc/modprobe.d/kvm.conf

Update 4/9/18: Blue screening happens to Windows 10 1803 as well with the error

System Thread Exception Not Handled

The fix for this is the same – ignore_msrs=1

GPU optimization:

Give as many CPUs as the host (in my case 8) and then enable NUMA for the CPU. This appeared to make my GTX 1070 perform better in the VM – near native performance.

Proxmox VM migration failed found stale volume copy

Recently I had a few VMs on shared storage I couldn’t live migrate. The cryptic error messages made it sound like local LVM was required, even though in the GUI all I could see was shared storage for the VM. The errors I kept getting were like this one:

volume pve/vm-103-disk-1 already exists
command 'dd 'if=/dev/pve/vm-103-disk-1' 'bs=64k'' failed: got signal 13
send/receive failed, cleaning up snapshot(s)..
ERROR: Failed to sync data - command 'set -o ...' failed: exit code 255
aborting phase 1 - cleanup resources
ERROR: found stale volume copy 'local-lvm:vm-103-disk-1' on node 'nick-desktop'
ERROR: migration aborted (duration 00:00:01): Failed to sync data - command 'set -o pipefail ...' failed: exit code 255
TASK ERROR: migration aborted

After a ton of digging I found this forum post that had the solution:

Most likely there is some stale disk somewhere. Try to run:
# qm rescan –vmid 101

That indeed was the problem. I ran

qm rescan –vmid 103

on the node in question, then refreshed the management page. After doing that, a ‘phantom’ disk entry showed up for the VM. I deleted it, but then had to run another qm –rescan –vmid103 before it would migrate.

So to recap, run qm rescan –vmid (vmid#) once, then delete the stale disk that shows up, then run that same command again.

Migrate from Xenserver to Proxmox

I was dismayed to see Citrix’s recent announcement about Xenserver 7.3 removing several key features from the free version. Xenserver’s free features are the reason I switched over to them in the first place back in 2014. Xenserver has been rock solid; I haven’t had any complaints until now. Their removal of xenmotion and migration in the free version forced me to look elsewhere for my virtualization needs.

I’ve settled on ProxMox, which is KVM based. Their documentation is excellent and it has all the features I need – for free. I’m also in love with their web based management – no more Windows fat client!

Below are my notes on how I successfully migrated all my Xenserver VMs over to the ProxMox Virtual Environment (PVE).

  • Any changes to network interfaces, such as bringing them up, require a reboot of the host
  • If you have an existing ISO share, you can create a directory called  “template” in your ISO repository folder, then inside symlink “iso” back to your ISO folder. Proxmox looks inside template/iso for ISO images for whatever storage you configure.
  • Do not create your ProxMox host with ZFS unless you have tons of RAM. If you don’t have enough RAM you will run into huge CPU load times making the system unresponsive in cases of high disk load, such as VM copies / backups. More reading here.

Cluster of two:

ProxMox’s clustering is a bit different – better, in my opinion. No more master, slave dynamic – ever node is a master. Important reading: https://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Proxmox_VE_4.x_Cluster

If you have two node cluster, like I do, it creates some problems, though. If one goes down, the other can’t do anything to the pool (create VM, backup) until it comes back up. In my situation I have one primary host that is up all the time and I bring the secondary host up only when I want to do maintenance on the first.

In that specific situation you can still designate a “master” of sorts by increasing the number of quorum votes it gets from 1 to 2.  That way when the secondary node is down, the primary node can still do cluster operations because the default number of votes to stay quorate is 2. See here for more reading on the subject.

On either host (they must both be up and in the cluster for this to work)

vi /etc/pve/corosync.conf

Find your primary server in the nodelist settings and change

quorum_votes: 2

Also find the quorum section and add expected_votes: 2

Make sure to increment config_version number (bottom of the file.) Now if your secondary is down you can still operate the primary.

Migrating VMs

I migrated my Xen VMs to KVM by creating VMs with identical specs in PVE, copying the VHD files from the Xen host to the new PVE host, running qemu-img to convert them to RAW format, and then using dd to copy the raw information over to corresponding empty VM  disks. Depending on the OS of the VM there was some after-copy tweaking I also had to do.

From shared storage

Grab the VHD file (quiesce any snapshots away first) of each xen VM and convert them to raw format

qemu-img convert <VHD_FILE_NAME>.vhd -O raw <RAW_FILE_NAME>.raw

Create a new VM with identical configuration, especially disk size. Go to the hardware tab and take note of the name of the disk. For example, one of mine was:

local-zfs:vm-100-disk-1,discard=on,size=40G

The interesting part is between local-zfs and discard=on, namely vm-100-disk-1. This is the name of the disk we want to overwrite with data from our Xenserver VM’s disk.

Next figure out the full path of this disk on your proxmox host

find / -name vm-100-disk-1*

The result in my case was /dev/zvol/rpool/data/vm-100-disk-1

Take the name and put it in the following command to complete the process:

dd if=<RAW_FILE_NAME>.raw of=/dev/zvol/rpool/data/vm-100-disk-1 bs=16M

Once that’s done you can delete your .vhd and .raw files.

From local / LVM storage

In case your Xen VMs are stored in LVM device format instead of a VHD file, get UUID of storage by doing xe vdi-list and finding the name of the hard disk from the VM you want. It’s helpful to rename the hard disks to something easy to spot. I chose the word migrate.

xe vdi-list|grep -B3 migrate
uuid ( RO) : a466ae1b-80c7-4ef2-91a3-5c1ba1f6fc2f
 name-label ( RW):  migrate

Once you have the UUID of the drive, you can use lvscan to find the full LVM device path of that disk:

lvscan|grep a466ae1b-80c7-4ef2-91a3-5c1ba1f6fc2f
 inactive '/dev/VG_XenStorage-1ada0a08-7e6d-a5b6-d0b4-515e251c0c75/VHD-a466ae1b-80c7-4ef2-91a3-5c1ba1f6fc2f' [10.03 GiB] inherit

Shut down the corresponding VM and reactivate its logical volume (xen deactivates LVMs if the VM is shut off:

lvchange -ay <full /dev/VG_XenStorage path discovered above>

Now that we have the full LVM path and the volume is active, we can use dd over SSH to transfer the image to our proxmox server:

sudo dd if=<full /dev/VG/Xenstorage path discovered above> | ssh <IP_OF_PROXMOX_SERVER> dd of=<LOCATION_ON_PROXMOX_THAT_HAS_ENOUGH_SPACE>/<NAME_OF_VDI_FILE>.vhd

then follow vhd -> raw -> dd to proxmox drive process described in the From Shared Storage section.

Post-Migration tweaks

For the most part Debian-based systems moved over perfectly without any needed tweaks; Some VMs changed interface names due to network device changes. eth0 turned into ens8. I had to modify /etc/network/interfaces to change eth0 to ens8 to get virtio networking working.

CentOS

All my CentOS VMs failed to boot after migration due to a lack of virtio disk drivers in the initial RAM disk. The fix is to change the disk hardware to IDE mode (they boot fine this way) and then modify the initrd of each affected host:

sudo dracut --add-drivers "virtio_pci virtio_blk virtio_scsi virtio_net virtio_ring virtio" -f -v /boot/initramfs-`uname -r`.img `uname -r`
sudo sh -c "echo 'add_drivers+=\" virtio_pci virtio_blk virtio_scsi virtio_net virtio_ring virtio \"' >> /etc/dracut.conf"
sudo shutdown -h now

Once that’s done you can detach the hard disk and re-attach it back as SCSI (virtio) mode. Don’t forget to modify the options and change the boot order from ide0 to scsi0

Arch Linux

One of my Arch VMs had UUID configured which complicated things. The root device UUID changes in KVM virtio vs IDE mode. The easiest way to fix it is to boot this VM into an Arch install CD. Mount the root partition and then run arch-chroot /mnt/sda1. Once in the chroot runpacman -Sy kernel to reinstall the kernel and generate appropriate kernel modules.

mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
arch-chroot /mnt
pacman -Sy kernel

Also make sure to modify /etc/fstab to reflect appropriate device id or UUID (xen used /dev/xvda1, kvm /dev/sda1)

Windows

Create your Windows VM using non-virtio drivers (default settings in PVE.) Obtain the latest windows virtio drivers here and extract them somewhere memorable. Switch everything but the disk over to Virtio in the VM’s hardware config and reboot the VM. Go into device manager and point to extracted driver location for each unknown device.

To get Virtio disk to work, add a new disk to the VM of any size and SCSI (virtio) type. Boot the Windows VM and install drivers for that drive. Then shut down, remove that second drive, detach the primary drive and change to virtio SCSI. It should then come up with full virtio drivers.

All hosts

KVM has a guest agent like xenserver does called qemu-agent. Turn it on in VM options and install qemu-guest-agent in your guest. This KVM a bit more insight into your host.

Determine which VMs need guest agent installed:

qm agent $id ping

If nothing is returned, it means qemu-agent is working. You can test all your VMs at once with this one-liner (change your starting and finishing VM IDs as appropriate)

for id in {100..114}; do echo $id; qm agent $id ping; done

This little one-liner will output the VM ID it’s trying to ping and will return any errors it finds. No errors means everything is working.

Disable support nag

PVE has a support model and will nag you at each login. If you don’t like this you can change it like so (the line number might be different depending on which version you’re running:

vi +850 /usr/share/pve-manager/js/pvemanagerlib.js

Modify the line if (data.status !== ‘Active’); change it to

if (false)

Troubleshooting

Remove a failed node

See here: https://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Proxmox_VE_4.x_Cluster#Remove_a_cluster_node

systemctl stop pvestatd.service
systemctl stop pvedaemon.service
systemctl stop pve-cluster.service
rm -r /etc/corosync/*
rm -r /var/lib/pve-cluster/*
reboot

Quorum never establishes / takes forever

I had a really strange issue where I was able to establish quorum with a second node, but after a reboot quorum never happened again. I re-installed that second node and re-joined it several times but I never got past the “waiting for quorum….” stage.

After much research I came across this article which explained what was happening. Corosync uses multicast to establish cluster quorum. Many switches (including mine) have a feature called IGMP snooping, which, without an IGMP querier, essentially means multicast never happens. Sure enough, after logging into my switches and disabling IGMP snooping, quorum was instantly established. The article above says this is not recommended, but in my small home lab it hasn’t produced any ill effects. Your mileage may vary. You can also configure your cluster to use unicast instead.

USB Passthrough not working properly

With Xenserver I was able to pass through the USB controller of my host to the guest (a JMICRON USB to ATAATAPI bridge holding a 4 disk bay.) I ran into issues with PVE, though. Using the GUI to pass the USB device did not work. Manually adding PCI passthrough directives (hostpci0: 00:14.1) didn’t work. I finally found on a little nugget on the PCI Passthrough page about how you can simply pass the entire device and not the function like I had in Xenserver. So instead of doing hostpci0: 00:14.1, I simply did hostpci0: 00:14 . That  helped a little bit, but I was still unable to fully use these drives simultaneously.

My solution was eventually to abandon PCI passthrough altogether in favor of just passing individual disks to the guest as outlined here.

Find the ID of the desired disks by issuing ls -l /dev/disk/by-id. You only need to know the UUIDs of the disks, not the partitions. Then modify the KVM config of your desired host (mine was located at /etc/pve/qemu-server/101.conf) and a new line for each disk, adjusting scsi device numbers and UUIDs to match:

scsi5: /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-SATA_ST5000VN000-1H4_Z111111

With that direct disk access everything is working splendidly in my FreeNAS VM.