Tag Archives: MariaDB

MariaDB with Active Directory authentication via PAM module

I needed to get mariadb authenticating users via Active Directory at work. Configuration was confusing until I stumbled across this article saying you can just tie into the system’s PAM configuration., which in my case is already configured for AD authentication. Awesome!

First, enable PAM plugin and restart mariadb:

/etc/my.cnf, anywhere in the mysqld section

plugin-load=auth_pam.so

Restart mariadb:

sudo systemctl restart mariadb

Next, configure a PAM file to interface with mariadb:

sudo vi /etc/pam.d/mysql
auth include system-auth 
account required pam_nologin.so 
account include system-auth 
password include system-auth 
session optional pam_keyinit.so force revoke 
session include system-auth 
session required pam_loginuid.so

Create catch all user in MariaDB and configure to use your PAM configuration:

CREATE USER ''@'%' IDENTIFIED VIA pam USING 'mysql';

Lastly, grant permissions in mariadb being sure to specify pam as the mechanism:

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES on <database>.* to '<user>'@'<host>' IDENTIFIED VIA pam;

Profit.

Install wordpress on CentOS7 with nginx & caching

Lately I’ve become interested in the LEMP stack (as opposed to the LAMP stack.) As such I’ve decided to set up a wordpress site running CentOS 7, nginx, mariadb, php-fpm, zend-opcache, apc, and varnish. This writeup will borrow heavily from two of my other writeups, Install Wordpress on CentOS 7 with  SELinux and Speed up WordPress in CentOS7 using caching. This will be a mashup of those two with an nginx twist with guidance from digitalocean. Let’s begin.

Repositories

To install the required addons we will need to have the epel repository enabled:

yum -y install epel-release

nginx

Install necessary packages:

sudo yum -y install nginx
sudo systemctl enable nginx

Optional: symlink /usr/share/nginx/ to /var/www/ (for those of us who are used to apache)

sudo ln -s /usr/share/nginx/ /var/www

Open necessary firewall ports:

sudo firewall-cmd --add-service=http --permanent
sudo systemctl restart firewalld

start nginx:

sudo systemctl start nginx

Navigate to your new site to make sure it brings up the default page properly.

MariaDB

Install:

sudo yum -y install mariadb-server mariadb
sudo systemctl enable mariadb

Run initial mysql configuration to set database root password

sudo systemctl start mariadb
sudo mysql_secure_installation

Configure:

Create a wordpress database and user:

mysql -u root -p 
#enter your mysql root password here
create user wordpress;
create database wordpress;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON wordpress.* To 'wordpress'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
quit;

php-fpm

Install:

sudo yum -y install php-fpm php-mysql php-pclzip
sudo systemctl enable php-fpm

Configure:

Uncomment cgi.fix_pathinfo and change value to 0:

sudo sed -i 's/\;\(cgi.fix_pathinfo=\)1/\10/g' /etc/php.ini

Modify the listen= parameter to listen to UNIX socket instead of TCP:

sudo sed -i 's/\(listen =\).*/\1 \/var\/run\/php-fpm\/php-fpm.sock/g' /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf

Change listen.owner and listen.group to nobody:

sudo sed -i 's/\(listen.owner = \).*/\1nobody/g; s/\(listen.group = \).*/\1nobody/g' /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf

Change running user & group from apache to nginx:

sudo sed -i 's/\(^user = \).*/\1nginx/g; s/\(^group = \).*/\1nginx/g' /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf

Start php-fpm:

sudo systemctl start php-fpm

Caching

To speed up wordpress further we need to install a few bits of caching software. Accept defaults when prompted.

zend-opcache & apc:

Install necessary packages:

sudo yum -y install php-pecl-zendopcache php-pecl-apcu php-devel gcc
sudo pecl install apc

Add apc extension to php configuration:

sudo sh -c "echo '\

#Add apc extension 
extension=apc.so' >> /etc/php.ini"

Restart php-fpm:

sudo systemctl restart php-fpm

Varnish

Install:

sudo yum -y install varnish
sudo systemctl enable varnish

Configure nginx to listen on port 8080 instead of port 80:

sudo sed -i /etc/nginx/nginx.conf -e 's/listen.*80/&80 /'

Change varnish to listen on port 80 instead of port 6081:

sudo sed -i /etc/varnish/varnish.params -e 's/\(VARNISH_LISTEN_PORT=\).*/\180/g'

Optional: change varnish to cache files in memory with a limit of 256M (caching to memory is much faster than caching to disk)

sudo sed -i /etc/varnish/varnish.params -e 's/\(VARNISH_STORAGE=\).*/\1\"malloc,256M\"/g'

Add varnish configuration to work with caching wordpress sites:

Update 2/25/2018 added section to allow facebook to properly scrape varnish cached sites.

sudo sh -c 'echo "/* SET THE HOST AND PORT OF WORDPRESS
 * *********************************************************/
vcl 4.0;
import std;

backend default {
 .host = \"127.0.0.1\";
 .port = \"8080\";
 .first_byte_timeout = 60s;
 .connect_timeout = 300s;
}
 
# SET THE ALLOWED IP OF PURGE REQUESTS
# ##########################################################
acl purge {
 \"localhost\";
 \"127.0.0.1\";
}

#THE RECV FUNCTION
# ##########################################################
sub vcl_recv {

#Facebook workaround to allow proper shares
if (req.http.user-agent ~ \"facebookexternalhit\")
        {
        return(pipe);
        }

# set realIP by trimming CloudFlare IP which will be used for various checks
set req.http.X-Actual-IP = regsub(req.http.X-Forwarded-For, \"[, ].*$\", \"\"); 

 # FORWARD THE IP OF THE REQUEST
 if (req.restarts == 0) {
 if (req.http.x-forwarded-for) {
 set req.http.X-Forwarded-For =
 req.http.X-Forwarded-For + \", \" + client.ip;
 } else {
 set req.http.X-Forwarded-For = client.ip;
 }
 }

 # Purge request check sections for hash_always_miss, purge and ban
 # BLOCK IF NOT IP is not in purge acl
 # ##########################################################

 # Enable smart refreshing using hash_always_miss
if (req.http.Cache-Control ~ \"no-cache\") {
 if (client.ip ~ purge) {
 set req.hash_always_miss = true;
 }
}

if (req.method == \"PURGE\") {
 if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
 return(synth(405,\"Not allowed.\"));
 }

 ban (\"req.url ~ \"+req.url);
 return(synth(200,\"Purged.\"));

}

if (req.method == \"BAN\") {
 # Same ACL check as above:
 if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
 return(synth(403, \"Not allowed.\"));
 }
 ban(\"req.http.host == \" + req.http.host +
 \" && req.url == \" + req.url);

 # Throw a synthetic page so the
 # request wont go to the backend.
 return(synth(200, \"Ban added\"));
}

# Unset cloudflare cookies
# Remove has_js and CloudFlare/Google Analytics __* cookies.
 set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, \"(^|;\s*)(_[_a-z]+|has_js)=[^;]*\", \"\");
 # Remove a \";\" prefix, if present.
 set req.http.Cookie = regsub(req.http.Cookie, \"^;\s*\", \"\");

 # For Testing: If you want to test with Varnish passing (not caching) uncomment
 # return( pass );

# DO NOT CACHE RSS FEED
 if (req.url ~ \"/feed(/)?\") {
 return ( pass ); 
}

#Pass wp-cron

if (req.url ~ \"wp-cron\.php.*\") {
 return ( pass );
}

## Do not cache search results, comment these 3 lines if you do want to cache them

if (req.url ~ \"/\?s\=\") {
 return ( pass ); 
}

# CLEAN UP THE ENCODING HEADER.
 # SET TO GZIP, DEFLATE, OR REMOVE ENTIRELY. WITH VARY ACCEPT-ENCODING
 # VARNISH WILL CREATE SEPARATE CACHES FOR EACH
 # DO NOT ACCEPT-ENCODING IMAGES, ZIPPED FILES, AUDIO, ETC.
 # ##########################################################
 if (req.http.Accept-Encoding) {
 if (req.url ~ \"\.(jpg|png|gif|gz|tgz|bz2|tbz|mp3|ogg)$\") {
 # No point in compressing these
 unset req.http.Accept-Encoding;
 } elsif (req.http.Accept-Encoding ~ \"gzip\") {
 set req.http.Accept-Encoding = \"gzip\";
 } elsif (req.http.Accept-Encoding ~ \"deflate\") {
 set req.http.Accept-Encoding = \"deflate\";
 } else {
 # unknown algorithm
 unset req.http.Accept-Encoding;
 }
 }

 # PIPE ALL NON-STANDARD REQUESTS
 # ##########################################################
 if (req.method != \"GET\" &&
 req.method != \"HEAD\" &&
 req.method != \"PUT\" && 
 req.method != \"POST\" &&
 req.method != \"TRACE\" &&
 req.method != \"OPTIONS\" &&
 req.method != \"DELETE\") {
 return (pipe);
 }
 
 # ONLY CACHE GET AND HEAD REQUESTS
 # ##########################################################
 if (req.method != \"GET\" && req.method != \"HEAD\") {
 return (pass);
 }
 
 # OPTIONAL: DO NOT CACHE LOGGED IN USERS (THIS OCCURS IN FETCH TOO, EITHER
 # COMMENT OR UNCOMMENT BOTH
 # ##########################################################
 if ( req.http.cookie ~ \"wordpress_logged_in|resetpass\" ) {
 return( pass );
 }

 #fix CloudFlare Mixed Content with Flexible SSL
 if (req.http.X-Forwarded-Proto) {
 return(hash);
 }

 # IF THE REQUEST IS NOT FOR A PREVIEW, WP-ADMIN OR WP-LOGIN
 # THEN UNSET THE COOKIES
 # ##########################################################
 if (!(req.url ~ \"wp-(login|admin)\") 
 && !(req.url ~ \"&preview=true\" ) 
 ){
 unset req.http.cookie;
 }

 # IF BASIC AUTH IS ON THEN DO NOT CACHE
 # ##########################################################
 if (req.http.Authorization || req.http.Cookie) {
 return (pass);
 }
 
 # IF YOU GET HERE THEN THIS REQUEST SHOULD BE CACHED
 # ##########################################################
 return (hash);
 # This is for phpmyadmin
if (req.http.Host == \"pmadomain.com\") {
return (pass);
}
}

sub vcl_hash {

if (req.http.X-Forwarded-Proto) {
 hash_data(req.http.X-Forwarded-Proto);
 }
}


# HIT FUNCTION
# ##########################################################
sub vcl_hit {
 return (deliver);
}

# MISS FUNCTION
# ##########################################################
sub vcl_miss {
 return (fetch);
}

# FETCH FUNCTION
# ##########################################################
sub vcl_backend_response {
 # I SET THE VARY TO ACCEPT-ENCODING, THIS OVERRIDES W3TC 
 # TENDANCY TO SET VARY USER-AGENT. YOU MAY OR MAY NOT WANT
 # TO DO THIS
 # ##########################################################
 set beresp.http.Vary = \"Accept-Encoding\";

 # IF NOT WP-ADMIN THEN UNSET COOKIES AND SET THE AMOUNT OF 
 # TIME THIS PAGE WILL STAY CACHED (TTL), add other locations or subdomains you do not want to cache here in case they set cookies
 # ##########################################################
 if (!(bereq.url ~ \"wp-(login|admin)\") && !bereq.http.cookie ~ \"wordpress_logged_in|resetpass\" ) {
 unset beresp.http.set-cookie;
 set beresp.ttl = 1w;
 set beresp.grace =3d;
 }

 if (beresp.ttl <= 0s ||
 beresp.http.Set-Cookie ||
 beresp.http.Vary == \"*\") {
 set beresp.ttl = 120 s;
 # set beresp.ttl = 120s;
 set beresp.uncacheable = true;
 return (deliver);
 }

 return (deliver);
}

# DELIVER FUNCTION
# ##########################################################
sub vcl_deliver {
 # IF THIS PAGE IS ALREADY CACHED THEN RETURN A HIT TEXT 
 # IN THE HEADER (GREAT FOR DEBUGGING)
 # ##########################################################
 if (obj.hits > 0) {
 set resp.http.X-Cache = \"HIT\";
 # IF THIS IS A MISS RETURN THAT IN THE HEADER
 # ##########################################################
 } else {
 set resp.http.X-Cache = \"MISS\";
 }
}" > /etc/varnish/default.vcl'

Restart varnish & nginx:

sudo systemctl restart nginx varnish

Logging

By default varnish does not log its traffic. This means that your apache log will only log things varnish does not cache. We have to configure varnish to log traffic so you don’t lose insight into who is visiting your site.

Update 2/14/2017:  I’ve discovered a better way to do this. The old way is still included below, but you really should use this other way.

New way:

CentOS ships with some systemd scripts for you. You can use them out of the box by simply issuing

systemctl start varnishncsa
systemctl enable varnishncsa

If you are behind a reverse proxy then you will want to tweak the varnishncsa output a bit to reflect x-forwarded-for header values (thanks to this github discussion for the guidance.) Accomplish this by appending a modified log output format string to /lib/systemd/system/varnishncsa.service:

sudo sed -i /lib/systemd/system/varnishncsa.service -e "s/ExecStart.*/& -F \'%%{X-Forwarded-For}i %%l %%u %%t \"%%r\" %%s %%b \"%%{Referer}i\" \"%%{User-agent}i\"\' /g"

Lastly, reload systemd configuration, enable, and start the varnishncsa service:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl enable varnishncsa
sudo systemctl start varnishncsa

 


Old way:

First, enable rc.local

sudo chmod +x /etc/rc.local
sudo systemctl enable rc-local

Next, add this entry to the rc.local file:

sudo sh -c 'echo "varnishncsa -a -w /var/log/varnish/access.log -D -P /var/run/varnishncsa.pid" >> /etc/rc.local'

If your varnish server is behind a reverse proxy (like a web application firewall) then modify the above code slightly (thanks to this site for the information on how to do so)

sudo sh -c "echo varnishncsa -a -F \'%{X-Forwarded-For}i %l %u %t \"%r\" %s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-agent}i\"\' -w /var/log/varnish/access.log -D -P /var/run/varnishncsa.pid >> /etc/rc.local"

Once configuration is in place, start the rc-local service

sudo systemctl start rc-local

WordPress

Download, extract, and set permissions for your wordpress installation (this assumes your wordpress site is the only site on the server)

wget https://wordpress.org/latest.zip
sudo unzip latest.zip -d /usr/share/nginx/html/
sudo chown nginx:nginx -R /usr/share/nginx/html/

Configure nginx

Follow best practice for nginx by creating a new configuration file for your wordpress site. In this example I’ve created a file wordpress.conf inside the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory.

Create the file:

sudo vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/wordpress.conf

Insert the following, making sure to modify the server_name directive:

server {
    listen 8080;
    listen [::]:8080;
    server_name wordpress;
    root /usr/share/nginx/html/wordpress;
    port_in_redirect off;


    location / {
        index index.php;
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?q=$uri&$args;
    }

    location ~ \.php$ {
        fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
        fastcgi_index index.php;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
    }

    error_page 404 /404.html;     
    location = /40x.html {
     }

    error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
    location = /50x.html {
    }
}

Restart nginx

sudo systemctl restart nginx

Configure upload directory

If you want users to upload content, then you will want to assign the http_sys_rw_content_t selinux security context for the wp-uploads directory (create it if it doesn’t exist)

sudo mkdir /usr/share/nginx/html/wordpress/wp-content/uploads
sudo chown nginx:nginx /usr/share/nginx/html/wordpress/wp-content/uploads
sudo semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t "/usr/share/nginx/html/wordpress/wp-content/uploads(/.*)?"
sudo restorecon -Rv /usr/share/nginx/html/wordpress/wp-content/uploads

Run the wizard

In order for the wizard to run properly we need to temporarily give the wordpress directory httpd_sys_rw_content_t selinux context

sudo chcon -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t /usr/share/nginx/html/wordpress/

Now navigate to your new website in a browser and follow the wizard, which will create a wp-config.php file inside the wordpress directory.

W3 Total Cache

Once your wordpress site is set up you will want to configure it to communicate with varnish. This will make sure the cache is always up to date when changes are made.

Install the W3 Total Cache wordpress plugin and configure it as follows:

opcode-database-object

Opcode cache: Opcode:Zend Opcache

Database cache: Check enable, select Opcode: Alternative PHP Cache (APC / APCu)

Object cache: Check enable, select Opcode: Alternative PHP Cache (APC / APCu)

Fragment cache: Opcode: Alternative PHP cache (APC / APCu)

proxy

Reverse Proxy: Check “Enable reverse proxy caching via varnish”
Specify 127.0.0.1 in the varnish servers box. Click save all settings.

Wrapping up

Once your site is properly set up, restore the original security context for the wordpress directory:

sudo restorecon -v /usr/share/nginx/html/wordpress/

Lastly restart nginx and varnish:

sudo systemctl restart nginx varnish

Success! Everything is working within the proper SELinux contexts and caching configuration.

Troubleshooting

403 forbidden

I received this error after setting everything up. After some digging I came across this site which explained what could be happening.

For me this meant that nginx couldn’t find an index file and was trying to default to a directory listing, which is not allowed by default. This is fixed by inserting a proper directive to find index files, in my case, index.php. Make sure you have “index index.php” in your nginx.conf inside the location / block:

    location / {
        index index.php;
    }

 Accessing wp-admin redirects you to port 8080, times out

If you find going to /wp-admin redirects you to a wrong port and times out, it’s because nginx is forwarding the portnumber. We want to turn that off (thanks to this site for the help.) Add this to your nginx.conf:

  port_in_redirect off;

Install WordPress on CentOS 7 with SELinux

I’ve been frustrated lately with the number of tutorials for installing WordPress on CentOS 7 that say to simply turn SELinux off. This is an unacceptable workaround. It’s simply lazy administration. SELinux is not designed to make your job harder (although it can do that pretty well), it’s there to make your system safer.

I have scoured the internet and pieced together bits of information from several sources – mainly here, here, and here to put together a tutorial that walks you through how to install WordPress in CentOS7 while keeping SELinux turned on.

It took a lot of reading to understand SELinux, but once you understand it, it makes a whole lot more sense. Go figure.

Apache

Install required packages:

sudo yum -y install httpd
sudo systemctl enable httpd

Modify apache config to allow mod_rewrite:

sudo sed -i /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf -e 's/AllowOverride None/AllowOverride All/g'

Open necessary firewall ports:

sudo firewall-cmd --add-service=http --permanent
sudo systemctl restart firewalld

Start apache:

sudo systemctl start httpd

Navigate to your new site to make sure the testing page comes up.

Update 11/4/2016: If you are behind a reverse proxy such as varnish or a web application firewall, you will want to modify your apache configuration to log x-forwarded-for IPs to make the logs more meaningful:

sudo sed -i /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf -e 's/%h/%{X-Forwarded-For}i/g'

MariaDB

Install:

sudo yum -y install mariadb-server mariadb
sudo systemctl enable mariadb

Run initial mysql configuration to set database root password

sudo systemctl start mariadb
sudo mysql_secure_installation

Create a wordpress database and user:

mysql -u root -p 
#enter your mysql root password here
create user wordpress;
create database wordpress;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON wordpress.* To 'wordpress'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
quit;

WordPress

Install PHP and restart apache

sudo yum -y install php php-mysql php-gd php-ldap php-odbc php-pear php-xml php-xmlrpc php-mbstring php-snmp php-soap curl
sudo systemctl restart httpd

Configure base wordpress directory

Download, extract, and set permissions for your wordpress installation:

wget https://wordpress.org/latest.zip
sudo unzip latest.zip -d /var/www/html
sudo chown apache:apache -R /var/www/html/wordpress

Optional: Change Apache document root so you don’t need to tack /wordpress at the end of the url:

sudo sed -i /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf -e 's/DocumentRoot \"\/var\/www\/html/&\/wordpress/g'
sudo systemctl restart httpd

Configure upload directory

If you want users to upload content, then you will want to assign the http_sys_rw_content_t selinux security context for the wp-uploads directory (create it if it doesn’t exist)

sudo mkdir /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-content/uploads
sudo chown apache:apache /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-content/uploads
sudo semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t "/var/www/html/wordpress/wp-content/uploads(/.*)?"
sudo restorecon -Rv /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-content/uploads

Run the wizard

In order for the wizard to run properly we need to temporarily give the wordpress directory httpd_sys_rw_content_t selinux context

sudo chcon -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t /var/www/html/wordpress/

Now navigate to your new website in a browser and follow the wizard, which will create a wp-config.php file inside the wordpress directory. Once your site is properly set up, restore the original security context for the wordpress directory:

sudo restorecon -v /var/www/html/wordpress/

Success! Everything is working within the proper SELinux contexts.

Troubleshooting

Permission denied when accessing /wordpress

The obvious thing to check is to make sure the directory /var/www/html/wordpress has the ownership set to apache. That didn’t fix my issue, though. Thanks to serverfault I narrowed this down to a selinux permissions issue.  Changing the selinux context to httpd_sys_content_t for the wordpress folder fixed the issue.

sudo semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_content_t /var/www/html/wordpress/
sudo restorecon -v /var/www/html/wordpress/

Sorry, but I can’t write the wp-config.php file.

“You can create the wp-config.php manually and paste the following text into it.”

I had a suspicion that writing files was also a selinux issue. This was confirmed when I decided to tail /var/log/audit/audit.log and found this when the wordpress installer tried to write wp-config.php:

type=AVC msg=audit(1475596102.558:16868): avc: denied { write } for pid=5751 comm="httpd" name="wordpress" dev="dm-0" ino=68494934 scontext=system_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 tcontext=system_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 tclass=dir
type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1475596102.558:16868): arch=c000003e syscall=21 success=no exit=-13 a0=7f9f4b931478 a1=2 a2=0 a3=1 items=0 ppid=5740 pid=5751 auid=4294967295 uid=48 gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=4294967295 comm="httpd" exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=system_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)

This led me to find this great explanation from Francis Pereira on how to get wordpress and selinux to peacefully coexist. Also thanks to the excellent Redhat Manual for more information on what to do, combined with this very helpful guide from serverlab.

First, we need to temporarily grant httpd_sys_rw_content_t to the wordpress directory. This is to allow the initial wizard to create the wp-config.php file.

sudo chcon -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t /var/www/html/wordpress/

Now you can run the wizard and it will work properly.

Once your site is set up, restore the context to http_sys_content_t

sudo restorecon -v /var/www/html/wordpress/